Neuronutrition and Alzheimer's disease.J Alzheimers Dis. 2010; 19(4):1123-39.JA
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurological disorder resulting from both genetic and environmental factors with the latter being particularly important for the sporadic form of the disease. As such, diets rich in saturated fatty acids and alcohol, and deficient in antioxidants and vitamins appear to promote the onset of the disease, while diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, antioxidants, and wine likely suppress its onset. In addition, evidence suggests that diets rich in polyphenols and some spices suppress the onset of AD by scavenging free radicals and preventing oxidative damage. Metal ions are known to catalyze the production of free radicals and induce mental retardation or dementia, and several studies have also identified metals such as Pb, Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn in AD pathogenesis. While specific metal chelators have been tested for therapy, they have not been very successful, probably due to their late administration, i.e., after brain damage has been triggered. Since several dietary polyphenols are known to chelate metals, their routine use may also be protective against the onset of AD. In this review, we summarize beneficial dietary techniques in the fight against AD.