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Omega-3 fatty acid supplements in women at high risk of breast cancer have dose-dependent effects on breast adipose tissue fatty acid composition.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May; 91(5):1185-94.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Preclinical evidence of the preventive benefits of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in breast cancer continues to fuel interest in the potential role of dietary fat content in reducing breast cancer risk. The dose of fish-oil/omega-3 PUFAs needed to achieve maximal target tissue effects for breast cancer prevention remains undefined.

OBJECTIVE

To determine the dose effects of omega-3 fatty acids on breast adipose tissue fatty acid profiles, we conducted a study of 4 doses of omega-3 PUFAs in women at high risk of breast cancer.

DESIGN

In this 6-mo randomized open-label study, 48 women with increased breast cancer risk received 1, 3, 6, or 9 capsules/d of an omega-3 PUFA supplement that provided 0.84, 2.52, 5.04, and 7.56 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) daily, respectively. Subjects made monthly visits, at which time pill counts were made and fasting blood samples were collected to determine fatty acid profiles; anthropometric measurements were made, breast adipose tissue samples were collected, and laboratory tests of toxicity (alanine aminotransferase, LDL cholesterol, and platelet function) were made at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo.

RESULTS

All doses led to increased serum and breast adipose tissue EPA and DHA concentrations, but the response to 0.84 g DHA+EPA/d was less than the maximum possible response with > or = 2.52 g/d. Body mass index attenuated the dose response for serum tissue DHA and EPA (P = 0.015 and 0.027, respectively) and breast adipose tissue DHA (P = 0.0022) in all of the treatment groups. The incremental increase in DHA and EPA correlated inversely with baseline fat and serum values. Compliance over 6 mo was 92.9 +/- 9.2% and was unaffected by treatment arm. No severe or serious toxicities were reported.

CONCLUSIONS

Daily doses up to 7.56 g DHA+EPA were well tolerated with excellent compliance in this cohort at high risk of breast cancer. Body mass index and baseline fatty acid concentrations modulated the dose-response effects of omega-3 PUFA supplements on serum EPA and DHA and breast adipose tissue DHA.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. lisa.yee@osumc.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20335550

Citation

Yee, Lisa D., et al. "Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer Have Dose-dependent Effects On Breast Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Composition." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 91, no. 5, 2010, pp. 1185-94.
Yee LD, Lester JL, Cole RM, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplements in women at high risk of breast cancer have dose-dependent effects on breast adipose tissue fatty acid composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(5):1185-94.
Yee, L. D., Lester, J. L., Cole, R. M., Richardson, J. R., Hsu, J. C., Li, Y., Lehman, A., Belury, M. A., & Clinton, S. K. (2010). Omega-3 fatty acid supplements in women at high risk of breast cancer have dose-dependent effects on breast adipose tissue fatty acid composition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(5), 1185-94. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.29036
Yee LD, et al. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer Have Dose-dependent Effects On Breast Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(5):1185-94. PubMed PMID: 20335550.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Omega-3 fatty acid supplements in women at high risk of breast cancer have dose-dependent effects on breast adipose tissue fatty acid composition. AU - Yee,Lisa D, AU - Lester,Joanne L, AU - Cole,Rachel M, AU - Richardson,Julia R, AU - Hsu,Jason C, AU - Li,Yan, AU - Lehman,Amy, AU - Belury,Martha A, AU - Clinton,Steven K, Y1 - 2010/03/24/ PY - 2010/3/26/entrez PY - 2010/3/26/pubmed PY - 2010/5/29/medline SP - 1185 EP - 94 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 91 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence of the preventive benefits of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in breast cancer continues to fuel interest in the potential role of dietary fat content in reducing breast cancer risk. The dose of fish-oil/omega-3 PUFAs needed to achieve maximal target tissue effects for breast cancer prevention remains undefined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the dose effects of omega-3 fatty acids on breast adipose tissue fatty acid profiles, we conducted a study of 4 doses of omega-3 PUFAs in women at high risk of breast cancer. DESIGN: In this 6-mo randomized open-label study, 48 women with increased breast cancer risk received 1, 3, 6, or 9 capsules/d of an omega-3 PUFA supplement that provided 0.84, 2.52, 5.04, and 7.56 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) daily, respectively. Subjects made monthly visits, at which time pill counts were made and fasting blood samples were collected to determine fatty acid profiles; anthropometric measurements were made, breast adipose tissue samples were collected, and laboratory tests of toxicity (alanine aminotransferase, LDL cholesterol, and platelet function) were made at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. RESULTS: All doses led to increased serum and breast adipose tissue EPA and DHA concentrations, but the response to 0.84 g DHA+EPA/d was less than the maximum possible response with > or = 2.52 g/d. Body mass index attenuated the dose response for serum tissue DHA and EPA (P = 0.015 and 0.027, respectively) and breast adipose tissue DHA (P = 0.0022) in all of the treatment groups. The incremental increase in DHA and EPA correlated inversely with baseline fat and serum values. Compliance over 6 mo was 92.9 +/- 9.2% and was unaffected by treatment arm. No severe or serious toxicities were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Daily doses up to 7.56 g DHA+EPA were well tolerated with excellent compliance in this cohort at high risk of breast cancer. Body mass index and baseline fatty acid concentrations modulated the dose-response effects of omega-3 PUFA supplements on serum EPA and DHA and breast adipose tissue DHA. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20335550/Omega_3_fatty_acid_supplements_in_women_at_high_risk_of_breast_cancer_have_dose_dependent_effects_on_breast_adipose_tissue_fatty_acid_composition_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2009.29036 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -