Multiparameter analysis of acute mixed lineage leukemia: correlation of a B/myeloid immunophenotype and immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements with the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome translocation in acute leukemias with myeloid morphology.Leukemia. 1991 May; 5(5):373-82.L
Morphological, immunological, cytogenetic, and molecular features of 28 cases of acute mixed lineage leukemia (AMLL), defined by the co-expression of lymphoid and myeloid cell surface antigens, were correlated in a multiparameter study. These 28 cases were identified in a series of 260 consecutive acute leukemia cases occurring predominantly in adults and were subdivided into 18 cases of AMLL with myeloid morphology and cytochemistry (AMLL-AML) and 10 cases of AMLL with lymphoid morphology and cytochemistry (AMLL-ALL). A lack of correlation was observed between the expression of B- or T-cell associated antigens with the presence of the expected immunoglobulin (Ig) or T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements in the AMLL cases with myeloid morphology. Only three of the 18 total AMLL-AML cases, each co-expressing B- and myeloid-associated cell surface antigens (B/My), had Ig heavy chain gene rearrangements with or without rearrangements of TCR genes. Ig light chain genes remained in the germline configuration. Strikingly, these three cases were the only AMLL-AML cases in our series to have the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11), suggesting that a significant percentage of acute leukemias with myeloid morphology and gene rearrangements may be Ph+ AMLL. The fact that three of the 10 B/My AMLL-AML cases in our series were Ph+ suggests that there may be an increased frequency of Ph chromosome, a translocation associated with a poor prognostic outcome, in B/My AMLL-AML occurring in the adult population. Although most AMLL cases with lymphoid morphology had Ig and TCR gene rearrangements associated with a variety of immunophenotypes and karyotypes, two Ph+ AMLL-ALL cases had many similar features (B/My immunophenotype; IgH with or without TCR rearrangements; Ig light chain genes germline) to their Ph+ AMLL-AML counterparts. However, the Ph+ AMLL-ALL cases differed from the Ph+ AMLL-AML cases by the expression of a more mature B-cell lineage immunophenotype and by their additional cytogenetic changes.