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Ultraviolet-B phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis: intraocular and crystalline lens photoprotection.

Abstract

PURPOSE

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation can cause phototoxic macular injuries in young people who have been sunbathing but not sungazing and in welders. Welders have a reportedly increased risk of uveal melanoma. We analyze phakic and pseudophakic risks for solar and welding arc UV-B exposure.

DESIGN

Optical radiation measurement, analysis, and perspective.

METHODS

Spectral transmittances were measured for UV-transmitting, UV-blocking, and blue-blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs). The photoprotective performances of crystalline and intraocular lenses were analyzed using relevant epidemiologic and laboratory data and action spectra for acute retinal phototoxicity and melanoma photocarcinogenesis.

RESULTS

Crystalline lens UV-B retinal protection is deficient in children and young adults, increasing their potential susceptibility to acute retinal phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis. UV-B radiation has sufficient energy/photon to induce primary melanomagenic DNA lesions, unlike blue light or UV-A radiation. UV-blocking and blue-blocking IOLs have negligible UV-B transmittance. UV-transmitting IOL transmittance of UV-B radiation is equivalent to that of a 15-year-old crystalline lens.

CONCLUSIONS

If optical radiation exposure is responsible for welders' increased risk of uveal melanoma, then UV-B radiation is the most probable causative agent and spectacle wear is a potential confounding factor in epidemiologic studies of ocular melanoma. Welders under 30 years of age are at greater risk for welding maculopathy than older welders. Children, adults under 30 years of age, and pseudophakic individuals with UV-transmitting IOLs should wear sunglasses in bright environments because of the UV-B window in their crystalline lenses or IOLs.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    University of Kansas School of Medicine, Prairie Village, KS 66208-3444, USA. mmainste@kumc.edu

    Source

    American journal of ophthalmology 149:4 2010 Apr pg 543-9

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aged
    Aging
    Cell Proliferation
    DNA Damage
    DNA, Neoplasm
    Eyeglasses
    Humans
    Lens, Crystalline
    Lenses, Intraocular
    Melanoma
    Middle Aged
    Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced
    Occupational Exposure
    Radiation Protection
    Retina
    Spectrum Analysis
    Tumor Cells, Cultured
    Ultraviolet Rays
    Uveal Neoplasms
    Welding

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    20346776

    Citation

    Mainster, Martin A., and Patricia L. Turner. "Ultraviolet-B Phototoxicity and Hypothetical Photomelanomagenesis: Intraocular and Crystalline Lens Photoprotection." American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 149, no. 4, 2010, pp. 543-9.
    Mainster MA, Turner PL. Ultraviolet-B phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis: intraocular and crystalline lens photoprotection. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149(4):543-9.
    Mainster, M. A., & Turner, P. L. (2010). Ultraviolet-B phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis: intraocular and crystalline lens photoprotection. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 149(4), pp. 543-9. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2009.11.028.
    Mainster MA, Turner PL. Ultraviolet-B Phototoxicity and Hypothetical Photomelanomagenesis: Intraocular and Crystalline Lens Photoprotection. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149(4):543-9. PubMed PMID: 20346776.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Ultraviolet-B phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis: intraocular and crystalline lens photoprotection. AU - Mainster,Martin A, AU - Turner,Patricia L, PY - 2009/09/09/received PY - 2009/11/23/revised PY - 2009/11/25/accepted PY - 2010/3/30/entrez PY - 2010/3/30/pubmed PY - 2010/4/23/medline SP - 543 EP - 9 JF - American journal of ophthalmology JO - Am. J. Ophthalmol. VL - 149 IS - 4 N2 - PURPOSE: Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation can cause phototoxic macular injuries in young people who have been sunbathing but not sungazing and in welders. Welders have a reportedly increased risk of uveal melanoma. We analyze phakic and pseudophakic risks for solar and welding arc UV-B exposure. DESIGN: Optical radiation measurement, analysis, and perspective. METHODS: Spectral transmittances were measured for UV-transmitting, UV-blocking, and blue-blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs). The photoprotective performances of crystalline and intraocular lenses were analyzed using relevant epidemiologic and laboratory data and action spectra for acute retinal phototoxicity and melanoma photocarcinogenesis. RESULTS: Crystalline lens UV-B retinal protection is deficient in children and young adults, increasing their potential susceptibility to acute retinal phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis. UV-B radiation has sufficient energy/photon to induce primary melanomagenic DNA lesions, unlike blue light or UV-A radiation. UV-blocking and blue-blocking IOLs have negligible UV-B transmittance. UV-transmitting IOL transmittance of UV-B radiation is equivalent to that of a 15-year-old crystalline lens. CONCLUSIONS: If optical radiation exposure is responsible for welders' increased risk of uveal melanoma, then UV-B radiation is the most probable causative agent and spectacle wear is a potential confounding factor in epidemiologic studies of ocular melanoma. Welders under 30 years of age are at greater risk for welding maculopathy than older welders. Children, adults under 30 years of age, and pseudophakic individuals with UV-transmitting IOLs should wear sunglasses in bright environments because of the UV-B window in their crystalline lenses or IOLs. SN - 1879-1891 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20346776/Ultraviolet_B_phototoxicity_and_hypothetical_photomelanomagenesis:_intraocular_and_crystalline_lens_photoprotection_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-9394(09)00892-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -