The gut transcriptome of a gall midge, Mayetiola destructor.J Insect Physiol. 2010 Sep; 56(9):1198-206.JI
The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a serious pest of wheat and an experimental organism for the study of gall midge-plant interactions. In addition to food digestion and detoxification, the gut of Hessian fly larvae is also an important interface for insect-host interactions. Analysis of the genes expressed in the Hessian fly larval gut will enhance our understanding of the overall gut physiology and may also lead to the identification of critical molecules for Hessian fly-host plant interactions. Over 10,000 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were generated and assembled into 2007 clusters. The most striking feature of the Hessian fly larval transcriptome is the existence of a large number of transcripts coding for so-called small secretory proteins (SSP) with amino acids less than 250. Eleven of the 30 largest clusters were SSP transcripts with the largest cluster containing 11.3% of total ESTs. Transcripts coding for diverse digestive enzymes and detoxification proteins were also identified. Putative digestive enzymes included trypsins, chymotrypsins, cysteine proteases, aspartic protease, endo-oligopeptidase, aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, and alpha-amylases. Putative detoxification proteins included cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases, peroxidases, ferritins, a catalase, peroxiredoxins, and others. This study represents the first global analysis of gut transcripts from a gall midge. The identification of a large number of transcripts coding for SSPs, digestive enzymes, detoxification proteins in the Hessian fly larval gut provides a foundation for future studies on the functions of these genes.