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Transcriptomic analysis of the venom gland of the red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps) using expressed sequence tags.
BMC Mol Biol. 2010 Mar 29; 11:24.BM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The Red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps, Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae) is a medically important venomous snake that inhabits South-East Asia. Although the venoms of most species of the snake genus Bungarus have been well characterized, a detailed compositional analysis of B. flaviceps is currently lacking.

RESULTS

Here, we have sequenced 845 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the venom gland of a B. flaviceps. Of the transcripts, 74.8% were putative toxins; 20.6% were cellular; and 4.6% were unknown. The main venom protein families identified were three-finger toxins (3FTxs), Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (including chain B of beta-bungarotoxin), phospholipase A2 (including chain A of beta-bungarotoxin), natriuretic peptide (NP), CRISPs, and C-type lectin.

CONCLUSION

The 3FTxs were found to be the major component of the venom (39%). We found eight groups of unique 3FTxs and most of them were different from the well-characterized 3FTxs. We found three groups of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (SPIs); one group was comparable to the classical SPIs and the other two groups to chain B of beta-bungarotoxins (with or without the extra cysteine) based on sequence identity. The latter group may be functional equivalents of dendrotoxins in Bungarus venoms. The natriuretic peptide (NP) found is the first NP for any Asian elapid, and distantly related to Australian elapid NPs. Our study identifies several unique toxins in B. flaviceps venom, which may help in understanding the evolution of venom toxins and the pathophysiological symptoms induced after envenomation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117546, Singapore.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20350308

Citation

Siang, Ang Swee, et al. "Transcriptomic Analysis of the Venom Gland of the Red-headed Krait (Bungarus Flaviceps) Using Expressed Sequence Tags." BMC Molecular Biology, vol. 11, 2010, p. 24.
Siang AS, Doley R, Vonk FJ, et al. Transcriptomic analysis of the venom gland of the red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps) using expressed sequence tags. BMC Mol Biol. 2010;11:24.
Siang, A. S., Doley, R., Vonk, F. J., & Kini, R. M. (2010). Transcriptomic analysis of the venom gland of the red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps) using expressed sequence tags. BMC Molecular Biology, 11, 24. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2199-11-24
Siang AS, et al. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Venom Gland of the Red-headed Krait (Bungarus Flaviceps) Using Expressed Sequence Tags. BMC Mol Biol. 2010 Mar 29;11:24. PubMed PMID: 20350308.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Transcriptomic analysis of the venom gland of the red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps) using expressed sequence tags. AU - Siang,Ang Swee, AU - Doley,Robin, AU - Vonk,Freek J, AU - Kini,R Manjunatha, Y1 - 2010/03/29/ PY - 2009/12/04/received PY - 2010/03/29/accepted PY - 2010/3/31/entrez PY - 2010/3/31/pubmed PY - 2010/6/23/medline SP - 24 EP - 24 JF - BMC molecular biology JO - BMC Mol Biol VL - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: The Red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps, Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae) is a medically important venomous snake that inhabits South-East Asia. Although the venoms of most species of the snake genus Bungarus have been well characterized, a detailed compositional analysis of B. flaviceps is currently lacking. RESULTS: Here, we have sequenced 845 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the venom gland of a B. flaviceps. Of the transcripts, 74.8% were putative toxins; 20.6% were cellular; and 4.6% were unknown. The main venom protein families identified were three-finger toxins (3FTxs), Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (including chain B of beta-bungarotoxin), phospholipase A2 (including chain A of beta-bungarotoxin), natriuretic peptide (NP), CRISPs, and C-type lectin. CONCLUSION: The 3FTxs were found to be the major component of the venom (39%). We found eight groups of unique 3FTxs and most of them were different from the well-characterized 3FTxs. We found three groups of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (SPIs); one group was comparable to the classical SPIs and the other two groups to chain B of beta-bungarotoxins (with or without the extra cysteine) based on sequence identity. The latter group may be functional equivalents of dendrotoxins in Bungarus venoms. The natriuretic peptide (NP) found is the first NP for any Asian elapid, and distantly related to Australian elapid NPs. Our study identifies several unique toxins in B. flaviceps venom, which may help in understanding the evolution of venom toxins and the pathophysiological symptoms induced after envenomation. SN - 1471-2199 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20350308/Transcriptomic_analysis_of_the_venom_gland_of_the_red_headed_krait__Bungarus_flaviceps__using_expressed_sequence_tags_ L2 - https://bmcmolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2199-11-24 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -