Effects of reactive compatibilization on the morphological, thermal, mechanical, and rheological properties of intumescent flame-retardant polypropylene.ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2009 Feb; 1(2):452-9.AA
Flame-retardant polypropylene (PP) samples were in situ compatibilized with maleic anhydride grafted PP. Compatibilization reaction was verified by an IR spectrum and gel content measurements. Electron microscopy images showed that compatibilization could considerably reduce the size of the flame-retardant domains, control the phase morphology, and improve the interfacial adhesion between PP and intumescent flame retardant (IFR) with different IFR loading levels. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) of flame-retardant PP increased to different extents after compatibilization, indicating an improvement in the flame retardancy. Compatibilization enhanced the thermal stability to some extent and remarkably delayed thermal oxidative degradation of flame-retardant PP. For PP containing 20 wt % flame retardant, the temperature at which the maximum weight loss rate occurred was enhanced by about 99 degrees C after compatibilization. The storage modulus and glass transition temperatures were elevated to different extents. Tensile strengths of samples reduced in the presence of flame retardant alone but in the additional presence of compatibilizer were restored to levels similar to those of pure PP. Elongation-at-break values, however, showed IFR concentration-dependent reductions that were less for compatibilized samples. Furthermore, the complex viscosity of a compatibilized PP melt turned slightly smaller, which is favorable to melt processing.