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Identification of the date-rape drug GHB and its precursor GBL by Raman spectroscopy.
Drug Test Anal. 2009 Jan; 1(1):25-31.DT

Abstract

Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 'liquid ecstasy', has recently become associated with drug-facilitated sexual assaults, known colloquially as 'date rape', due to the ability of the drug to cause loss of consciousness. The drug is commonly found 'spiked' into alcoholic beverages, as alcohol increases its sedative effects. Gamma hydroxybutyric acid and the corresponding lactone gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) will reach an equilibrium in solution which favours the lactone in basic conditions and GHB in acidic conditions (less than pH 4). Therefore, we have studied both GHB and GBL, as a mildly acidic beverage 'spiked' with GHB will contain both GHB and GBL. We report the analysis of GHB as a sodium salt and GBL, its precursor, using bench-top and portable Raman spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that we are able to detect GHB and GBL in a variety of containers including colourless and amber glass vials, plastic vials and polythene bags. We have also demonstrated the ability to detect both GBL and GHB in a range of liquid matrices simulating 'spiked' beverages.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Raman Spectroscopy Group, Division of Chemical and Forensic Sciences, University of Bradford, BD7 1DP, United Kingdom. victoria.brewster@postgrad.manchester.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20355156

Citation

Brewster, Victoria L., et al. "Identification of the Date-rape Drug GHB and Its Precursor GBL By Raman Spectroscopy." Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 1, no. 1, 2009, pp. 25-31.
Brewster VL, Edwards HG, Hargreaves MD, et al. Identification of the date-rape drug GHB and its precursor GBL by Raman spectroscopy. Drug Test Anal. 2009;1(1):25-31.
Brewster, V. L., Edwards, H. G., Hargreaves, M. D., & Munshi, T. (2009). Identification of the date-rape drug GHB and its precursor GBL by Raman spectroscopy. Drug Testing and Analysis, 1(1), 25-31. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.11
Brewster VL, et al. Identification of the Date-rape Drug GHB and Its Precursor GBL By Raman Spectroscopy. Drug Test Anal. 2009;1(1):25-31. PubMed PMID: 20355156.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Identification of the date-rape drug GHB and its precursor GBL by Raman spectroscopy. AU - Brewster,Victoria L, AU - Edwards,Howell G M, AU - Hargreaves,Michael D, AU - Munshi,Tasnim, PY - 2010/4/1/entrez PY - 2009/1/1/pubmed PY - 2010/7/2/medline SP - 25 EP - 31 JF - Drug testing and analysis JO - Drug Test Anal VL - 1 IS - 1 N2 - Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 'liquid ecstasy', has recently become associated with drug-facilitated sexual assaults, known colloquially as 'date rape', due to the ability of the drug to cause loss of consciousness. The drug is commonly found 'spiked' into alcoholic beverages, as alcohol increases its sedative effects. Gamma hydroxybutyric acid and the corresponding lactone gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) will reach an equilibrium in solution which favours the lactone in basic conditions and GHB in acidic conditions (less than pH 4). Therefore, we have studied both GHB and GBL, as a mildly acidic beverage 'spiked' with GHB will contain both GHB and GBL. We report the analysis of GHB as a sodium salt and GBL, its precursor, using bench-top and portable Raman spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that we are able to detect GHB and GBL in a variety of containers including colourless and amber glass vials, plastic vials and polythene bags. We have also demonstrated the ability to detect both GBL and GHB in a range of liquid matrices simulating 'spiked' beverages. SN - 1942-7611 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20355156/Identification_of_the_date_rape_drug_GHB_and_its_precursor_GBL_by_Raman_spectroscopy_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.11 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -