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Reinforcing poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanofibers with cellulose nanocrystals.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2009; 1(9):1996-2004AA

Abstract

We studied the use of cellulose nanocrystals (CNXs) obtained after acid hydrolysis of ramie cellulose fibers to reinforce poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers. Chemical grafting with low-molecular-weight PCL diol onto the CNXs was carried out in an attempt to improve the interfacial adhesion with the fiber matrix. Grafting was confirmed via infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses. The polymer matrix consisted of electrospun nanofibers that were collected as nonwoven webs. The morphology as well as thermal and mechanical properties of filled and unfilled nanofibers were elucidated by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. The addition of CNXs into PCL produced minimal changes in the thermal behavior of the electrospun fibers. However, a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanofibers after reinforcement with unmodified CNXs was confirmed. Fiber webs from PCL reinforced with 2.5% unmodified CNXs showed ca. 1.5-fold increase in Young's modulus and the ultimate strength compared to PCL webs. Compared to the case of grafted nanocrystals, the unmodified ones imparted better morphological homogeneity to the nanofibrillar structure. The grafted nanocrystals had a negative effect on the morphology of nonwoven webs in which individual nanofibers became annealed during the electrospinning process and, therefore, could not be compared to neat PCL nonwoven webs. A rationalization for the different effects of grafted and unmodified CNXs in reinforcing PCL nanofibers is provided.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8005, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20355825

Citation

Zoppe, Justin O., et al. "Reinforcing Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) Nanofibers With Cellulose Nanocrystals." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 1, no. 9, 2009, pp. 1996-2004.
Zoppe JO, Peresin MS, Habibi Y, et al. Reinforcing poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanofibers with cellulose nanocrystals. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2009;1(9):1996-2004.
Zoppe, J. O., Peresin, M. S., Habibi, Y., Venditti, R. A., & Rojas, O. J. (2009). Reinforcing poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanofibers with cellulose nanocrystals. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 1(9), pp. 1996-2004. doi:10.1021/am9003705.
Zoppe JO, et al. Reinforcing Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) Nanofibers With Cellulose Nanocrystals. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2009;1(9):1996-2004. PubMed PMID: 20355825.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Reinforcing poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanofibers with cellulose nanocrystals. AU - Zoppe,Justin O, AU - Peresin,Maria S, AU - Habibi,Youssef, AU - Venditti,Richard A, AU - Rojas,Orlando J, PY - 2010/4/2/entrez PY - 2010/4/2/pubmed PY - 2010/5/1/medline SP - 1996 EP - 2004 JF - ACS applied materials & interfaces JO - ACS Appl Mater Interfaces VL - 1 IS - 9 N2 - We studied the use of cellulose nanocrystals (CNXs) obtained after acid hydrolysis of ramie cellulose fibers to reinforce poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers. Chemical grafting with low-molecular-weight PCL diol onto the CNXs was carried out in an attempt to improve the interfacial adhesion with the fiber matrix. Grafting was confirmed via infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses. The polymer matrix consisted of electrospun nanofibers that were collected as nonwoven webs. The morphology as well as thermal and mechanical properties of filled and unfilled nanofibers were elucidated by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. The addition of CNXs into PCL produced minimal changes in the thermal behavior of the electrospun fibers. However, a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanofibers after reinforcement with unmodified CNXs was confirmed. Fiber webs from PCL reinforced with 2.5% unmodified CNXs showed ca. 1.5-fold increase in Young's modulus and the ultimate strength compared to PCL webs. Compared to the case of grafted nanocrystals, the unmodified ones imparted better morphological homogeneity to the nanofibrillar structure. The grafted nanocrystals had a negative effect on the morphology of nonwoven webs in which individual nanofibers became annealed during the electrospinning process and, therefore, could not be compared to neat PCL nonwoven webs. A rationalization for the different effects of grafted and unmodified CNXs in reinforcing PCL nanofibers is provided. SN - 1944-8244 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20355825/Reinforcing_poly_epsilon_caprolactone__nanofibers_with_cellulose_nanocrystals_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am9003705 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -