Hepatitis E virus infection: a general review with a focus on hemodialysis and kidney transplant patients.Am J Nephrol. 2010; 31(5):398-407.AJ
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a self-limited viral disease that causes acute hepatitis epidemics in developing countries. The common route of transmission for HEV is supposedly fecal-oral. Serological evidence may be unexpectedly found in hemodialysis (HD) patients and kidney transplant recipients. Although the route of HEV transmission is not usually determined in HD subjects, this virus seems to be transmitted either directly through HD or nosocomially. In this study, we gathered the published information on HEV infection in HD patients and kidney transplant recipients.
For this review, we collected the relevant articles by searching through Medline and Google Scholar from January 1980 up to September 2009.
Some variables including older age, low education, living in rural versus urban areas and the duration of HD seem to be risk factors for HEV infection in HD patients. Compared with non-HD subjects, HEV infection may be specifically associated with poor outcome in HD patients. Specific considerations seem to be required to prevent transmission of HEV to HD patients.
More extensive investigations are required to determine the disease burden of HEV infection in HD subjects in countries which experience outbreaks of HEV infection.