Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Zoonotic hepatitis E: animal reservoirs and emerging risks.
Vet Res. 2010 Nov-Dec; 41(6):46.VR

Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for enterically-transmitted acute hepatitis in humans with two distinct epidemiological patterns. In endemic regions, large waterborne epidemics with thousands of people affected have been observed, and, in contrast, in non-endemic regions, sporadic cases have been described. Although contaminated water has been well documented as the source of infection in endemic regions, the modes of transmission in non-endemic regions are much less known. HEV is a single-strand, positive-sense RNA virus which is classified in the Hepeviridae family with at least four known main genotypes (1-4) of mammalian HEV and one avian HEV. HEV is unique among the known hepatitis viruses, in which it has an animal reservoir. In contrast to humans, swine and other mammalian animal species infected by HEV generally remain asymptomatic, whereas chickens infected by avian HEV may develop a disease known as Hepatitis-Splenomegaly syndrome. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are found exclusively in humans while genotypes 3 and 4 are found both in humans and other mammals. Several lines of evidence indicate that, in some cases involving HEV genotypes 3 and 4, animal to human transmissions occur. Furthermore, individuals with direct contact with animals are at higher risk of HEV infection. Cross-species infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 have been demonstrated experimentally. However, not all sources of human infections have been identified thus far and in many cases, the origin of HEV infection in humans remains unknown.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort, France. npavio@vet-alfort.frNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20359452

Citation

Pavio, Nicole, et al. "Zoonotic Hepatitis E: Animal Reservoirs and Emerging Risks." Veterinary Research, vol. 41, no. 6, 2010, p. 46.
Pavio N, Meng XJ, Renou C. Zoonotic hepatitis E: animal reservoirs and emerging risks. Vet Res. 2010;41(6):46.
Pavio, N., Meng, X. J., & Renou, C. (2010). Zoonotic hepatitis E: animal reservoirs and emerging risks. Veterinary Research, 41(6), 46. https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres/2010018
Pavio N, Meng XJ, Renou C. Zoonotic Hepatitis E: Animal Reservoirs and Emerging Risks. Vet Res. 2010 Nov-Dec;41(6):46. PubMed PMID: 20359452.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Zoonotic hepatitis E: animal reservoirs and emerging risks. AU - Pavio,Nicole, AU - Meng,Xiang-Jin, AU - Renou,Christophe, Y1 - 2010/04/02/ PY - 2009/11/02/received PY - 2010/04/01/accepted PY - 2010/4/3/entrez PY - 2010/4/3/pubmed PY - 2011/1/21/medline SP - 46 EP - 46 JF - Veterinary research JO - Vet Res VL - 41 IS - 6 N2 - Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for enterically-transmitted acute hepatitis in humans with two distinct epidemiological patterns. In endemic regions, large waterborne epidemics with thousands of people affected have been observed, and, in contrast, in non-endemic regions, sporadic cases have been described. Although contaminated water has been well documented as the source of infection in endemic regions, the modes of transmission in non-endemic regions are much less known. HEV is a single-strand, positive-sense RNA virus which is classified in the Hepeviridae family with at least four known main genotypes (1-4) of mammalian HEV and one avian HEV. HEV is unique among the known hepatitis viruses, in which it has an animal reservoir. In contrast to humans, swine and other mammalian animal species infected by HEV generally remain asymptomatic, whereas chickens infected by avian HEV may develop a disease known as Hepatitis-Splenomegaly syndrome. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are found exclusively in humans while genotypes 3 and 4 are found both in humans and other mammals. Several lines of evidence indicate that, in some cases involving HEV genotypes 3 and 4, animal to human transmissions occur. Furthermore, individuals with direct contact with animals are at higher risk of HEV infection. Cross-species infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 have been demonstrated experimentally. However, not all sources of human infections have been identified thus far and in many cases, the origin of HEV infection in humans remains unknown. SN - 0928-4249 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20359452/Zoonotic_hepatitis_E:_animal_reservoirs_and_emerging_risks_ L2 - http://publications.edpsciences.org/10.1051/vetres/2010018 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -