[Celiac disease].Rev Med Interne 2010; 31(6):428-33RM
Celiac disease is an enteropathy due to gluten intake in genetically predisposed individuals (HLA DQ2/DQ8). Celiac disease occurs in adults and children at rates approaching 1% of population in Europe and USA. Clinical features observed in celiac disease are extremely various and anaemia, oral aphthous stomatis, amenorrhea or articular symptoms may be the only presenting manifestations. Diagnosis relies on the evidence of histological villous atrophy in proximal small bowel and the presence of specific serum antibodies. Treatment relies on eviction of gluten (wheat, barley, rye) from diet. Gluten free diet allows prevention of malignant complications such as small bowel adenocarcinoma and lymphoma, and osteopenia. The main cause of resistance to gluten free diet is its poor observance. If not the case, serious complications of celiac disease, such as clonal refractory celiac sprue and intestinal T-cell lymphoma should be suspected. Current therapeutic challenges concern alternative to gluten free diet and new efficient treatments of lymphomatous complications.