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Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Germany, 2006.
BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Apr 10; 10:91.BI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed.

METHODS

Participants of the triathlon were contacted by e-mail and were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. In addition, they were asked to supply a serum sample for laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis. A confirmed case patient was defined as a clinical case (i.e. fever and at least one additional symptom suggestive for leptospirosis) with at least two of the following tests positive: ELISA IgM, latex agglutination testing, or microscopic agglutination testing. Rainfall and temperature records were obtained.

RESULTS

A total of 142 of 507 triathletes were contacted; among these, five confirmed leptospirosis cases were found. Open wounds were identified as the only significant risk factor for illness (p = 0.02). Heavy rains that preceded the swimming event likely increased leptospiral contamination of the Neckar River.

DISCUSSION

This is the first outbreak of leptospirosis related to a competitive sports event in Germany. Among people with contact to freshwater, the risk of contracting leptospirosis should be considered by health care providers also in temperate countries, particularly in the summer after heavy rains.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20380736

Citation

Brockmann, Stefan, et al. "Outbreak of Leptospirosis Among Triathlon Participants in Germany, 2006." BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 10, 2010, p. 91.
Brockmann S, Piechotowski I, Bock-Hensley O, et al. Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Germany, 2006. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:91.
Brockmann, S., Piechotowski, I., Bock-Hensley, O., Winter, C., Oehme, R., Zimmermann, S., Hartelt, K., Luge, E., Nöckler, K., Schneider, T., Stark, K., & Jansen, A. (2010). Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Germany, 2006. BMC Infectious Diseases, 10, 91. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-10-91
Brockmann S, et al. Outbreak of Leptospirosis Among Triathlon Participants in Germany, 2006. BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Apr 10;10:91. PubMed PMID: 20380736.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Germany, 2006. AU - Brockmann,Stefan, AU - Piechotowski,Isolde, AU - Bock-Hensley,Oswinde, AU - Winter,Christian, AU - Oehme,Rainer, AU - Zimmermann,Stefan, AU - Hartelt,Katrin, AU - Luge,Enno, AU - Nöckler,Karsten, AU - Schneider,Thomas, AU - Stark,Klaus, AU - Jansen,Andreas, Y1 - 2010/04/10/ PY - 2009/10/13/received PY - 2010/04/10/accepted PY - 2010/4/13/entrez PY - 2010/4/13/pubmed PY - 2010/5/11/medline SP - 91 EP - 91 JF - BMC infectious diseases JO - BMC Infect Dis VL - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed. METHODS: Participants of the triathlon were contacted by e-mail and were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. In addition, they were asked to supply a serum sample for laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis. A confirmed case patient was defined as a clinical case (i.e. fever and at least one additional symptom suggestive for leptospirosis) with at least two of the following tests positive: ELISA IgM, latex agglutination testing, or microscopic agglutination testing. Rainfall and temperature records were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 142 of 507 triathletes were contacted; among these, five confirmed leptospirosis cases were found. Open wounds were identified as the only significant risk factor for illness (p = 0.02). Heavy rains that preceded the swimming event likely increased leptospiral contamination of the Neckar River. DISCUSSION: This is the first outbreak of leptospirosis related to a competitive sports event in Germany. Among people with contact to freshwater, the risk of contracting leptospirosis should be considered by health care providers also in temperate countries, particularly in the summer after heavy rains. SN - 1471-2334 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20380736/Outbreak_of_leptospirosis_among_triathlon_participants_in_Germany_2006_ L2 - https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-10-91 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -