Indirubin-3'-monoxime rescues spatial memory deficits and attenuates beta-amyloid-associated neuropathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.Neurobiol Dis 2010; 39(2):156-68ND
Indirubin and its derivatives have been shown to possess potent inhibitory effects on cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, two protein kinases involved in abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau and amyloid precursor protein processing/beta-amyloid (Abeta) production. Here, we showed that systemic treatment of APP and presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic mice, a robust Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model, with indirubin-3'-monoxime (IMX; 20mg/kg; 3 times weekly), for as little as 2months, significantly attenuated spatial memory deficits. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in several AD-like phenotypes, including Abeta deposition, tau hyperphosphorylation, accumulation of activated microglia and astrocytes around Abeta plaques, and loss of synaptophysin immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that IMX is a potential therapeutic agent to combat AD.