[Dermatophytoses due to anthropophilic fungi in Cadiz, Spain, between 1997 and 2008].Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2010 Apr; 101(3):242-7.AD
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
Cutaneous fungal infections are a major public health problem. The distribution of the dermatophytoses varies between countries and geographical areas. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, epidemiology, etiology, and clinical course of the dermatophytoses caused by anthropophilic fungi in Cadiz, Spain, over the past 12 years.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The study, conducted between 1997 and 2008, included 2,235 samples from lesions of the skin, hair, and nails of 2,220 patients with a clinical suspicion of mycosis. Samples were examined by microscopy using potassium hydroxide and were cultured on mycological media. The dermatophytes were identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics.
Cultures were positive in 283 cases (12.7%). Anthropophilic dermatophytes (53.3%) were more common than zoophilic (41.3%) and geophilic (5.3%) dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum (38.2%) was the predominant pathogen isolated, followed by Microsporum canis (22.3%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.5%). Five other species of anthropophilic fungi were identified: Trichophyton tonsurans (5.6%), Trichophyton violaceum (4.9%), Epidermophyton floccosum (2.8%), Trichophyton soudanense (1.0%), and Trichophyton schoenleinii (0.7%). Infections caused by the anthropophilic fungi included tinea unguium (29.1%), tinea corporis (25.8%), tinea pedis (19.2%), tinea cruris (11.9%), tinea capitis (5.3%), and tinea faciei (3.3%).
The principal fungus responsible for dermatomycosis in Cadiz was T. rubrum, and its incidence has been rising since 2000. The prevalence of other anthropophilic fungi, such as T. tonsurans and T. violaceum, has increased, though this is not directly related to immigration. E. floccosum, T. soudanense, and T. schoenleinii are isolated occasionally.