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The effects of a high-energy diet on hippocampal function and blood-brain barrier integrity in the rat.

Abstract

Cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease are linked with intake of a Western diet, characterized by high levels of saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. In rats, these dietary components have been shown to disrupt hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes, particularly those involving spatial memory. Using a rat model, the present research assessed the degree to which consumption of a high-energy (HE) diet, similar to those found in modern Western cultures, produces a selective impairment in hippocampal function as opposed to a more global cognitive disruption. Learning and memory performance was examined following 90-day consumption of an HE-diet in three nonspatial discrimination learning problems that differed with respect to their dependence on the integrity of the hippocampus. The results showed that consumption of the HE-diet impaired performance in a hippocampal-dependent feature negative discrimination problem relative to chow-fed controls, whereas performance was spared on two discrimination problems that do not rely on the hippocampus. To explore the mechanism whereby consuming HE-diets impairs cognitive function, we investigated the effect of HE-diets on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We found that HE-diet consumption produced a decrease in mRNA expression of tight junction proteins, particularly Claudin-5 and -12, in the choroid plexus and the BBB. Consequently, an increased blood-to-brain permeability of sodium fluorescein was observed in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum and prefrontal cortex following HE-diet access. These results indicate that hippocampal function may be particularly vulnerable to disruption by HE-diets, and this disruption may be related to impaired BBB integrity.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 19104-6241, USA. kanoski@sas.upenn.edu

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Behavior, Animal
    Blood-Brain Barrier
    Body Weight
    Cognition Disorders
    Dietary Fats
    Discrimination Learning
    Disease Models, Animal
    Food Deprivation
    Gene Expression Regulation
    Hippocampus
    Male
    Maze Learning
    Membrane Proteins
    Rats
    Rats, Sprague-Dawley
    Tight Junctions
    Time Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    20413889

    Citation

    Kanoski, Scott E., et al. "The Effects of a High-energy Diet On Hippocampal Function and Blood-brain Barrier Integrity in the Rat." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD, vol. 21, no. 1, 2010, pp. 207-19.
    Kanoski SE, Zhang Y, Zheng W, et al. The effects of a high-energy diet on hippocampal function and blood-brain barrier integrity in the rat. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;21(1):207-19.
    Kanoski, S. E., Zhang, Y., Zheng, W., & Davidson, T. L. (2010). The effects of a high-energy diet on hippocampal function and blood-brain barrier integrity in the rat. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD, 21(1), pp. 207-19. doi:10.3233/JAD-2010-091414.
    Kanoski SE, et al. The Effects of a High-energy Diet On Hippocampal Function and Blood-brain Barrier Integrity in the Rat. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;21(1):207-19. PubMed PMID: 20413889.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The effects of a high-energy diet on hippocampal function and blood-brain barrier integrity in the rat. AU - Kanoski,Scott E, AU - Zhang,Yanshu, AU - Zheng,Wei, AU - Davidson,Terry L, PY - 2010/4/24/entrez PY - 2010/4/24/pubmed PY - 2010/11/3/medline SP - 207 EP - 19 JF - Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD JO - J. Alzheimers Dis. VL - 21 IS - 1 N2 - Cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease are linked with intake of a Western diet, characterized by high levels of saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. In rats, these dietary components have been shown to disrupt hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes, particularly those involving spatial memory. Using a rat model, the present research assessed the degree to which consumption of a high-energy (HE) diet, similar to those found in modern Western cultures, produces a selective impairment in hippocampal function as opposed to a more global cognitive disruption. Learning and memory performance was examined following 90-day consumption of an HE-diet in three nonspatial discrimination learning problems that differed with respect to their dependence on the integrity of the hippocampus. The results showed that consumption of the HE-diet impaired performance in a hippocampal-dependent feature negative discrimination problem relative to chow-fed controls, whereas performance was spared on two discrimination problems that do not rely on the hippocampus. To explore the mechanism whereby consuming HE-diets impairs cognitive function, we investigated the effect of HE-diets on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We found that HE-diet consumption produced a decrease in mRNA expression of tight junction proteins, particularly Claudin-5 and -12, in the choroid plexus and the BBB. Consequently, an increased blood-to-brain permeability of sodium fluorescein was observed in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum and prefrontal cortex following HE-diet access. These results indicate that hippocampal function may be particularly vulnerable to disruption by HE-diets, and this disruption may be related to impaired BBB integrity. SN - 1875-8908 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20413889/The_effects_of_a_high_energy_diet_on_hippocampal_function_and_blood_brain_barrier_integrity_in_the_rat_ L2 - https://content.iospress.com/openurl?genre=article&id=doi:10.3233/JAD-2010-091414 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -