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Tyrannobdella rex n. gen. n. sp. and the evolutionary origins of mucosal leech infestations.
PLoS One. 2010 Apr 14; 5(4):e10057.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Leeches have gained a fearsome reputation by feeding externally on blood, often from human hosts. Orificial hirudiniasis is a condition in which a leech enters a body orifice, most often the nasopharyngeal region, but there are many cases of leeches infesting the eyes, urethra, vagina, or rectum. Several leech species particularly in Africa and Asia are well-known for their propensity to afflict humans. Because there has not previously been any data suggesting a close relationship for such geographically disparate species, this unnerving tendency to be invasive has been regarded only as a loathsome oddity and not a unifying character for a group of related organisms.

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

A new genus and species of leech from Perú was found feeding from the nasopharynx of humans. Unlike any other leech previously described, this new taxon has but a single jaw with very large teeth. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes using parsimony and Bayesian inference demonstrate that the new species belongs among a larger, global clade of leeches, all of which feed from the mucosal surfaces of mammals.

CONCLUSIONS

This new species, found feeding from the upper respiratory tract of humans in Perú, clarifies an expansion of the family Praobdellidae to include the new species Tyrannobdella rex n. gen. n. sp., along with others in the genera Dinobdella, Myxobdella, Praobdella and Pintobdella. Moreover, the results clarify a single evolutionary origin of a group of leeches that specializes on mucous membranes, thus, posing a distinct threat to human health.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology, The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, New York, New York, United States of America.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20418947

Citation

Phillips, Anna J., et al. "Tyrannobdella Rex N. Gen. N. Sp. and the Evolutionary Origins of Mucosal Leech Infestations." PloS One, vol. 5, no. 4, 2010, pp. e10057.
Phillips AJ, Arauco-Brown R, Oceguera-Figueroa A, et al. Tyrannobdella rex n. gen. n. sp. and the evolutionary origins of mucosal leech infestations. PLoS ONE. 2010;5(4):e10057.
Phillips, A. J., Arauco-Brown, R., Oceguera-Figueroa, A., Gomez, G. P., Beltrán, M., Lai, Y. T., & Siddall, M. E. (2010). Tyrannobdella rex n. gen. n. sp. and the evolutionary origins of mucosal leech infestations. PloS One, 5(4), e10057. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010057
Phillips AJ, et al. Tyrannobdella Rex N. Gen. N. Sp. and the Evolutionary Origins of Mucosal Leech Infestations. PLoS ONE. 2010 Apr 14;5(4):e10057. PubMed PMID: 20418947.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Tyrannobdella rex n. gen. n. sp. and the evolutionary origins of mucosal leech infestations. AU - Phillips,Anna J, AU - Arauco-Brown,Renzo, AU - Oceguera-Figueroa,Alejandro, AU - Gomez,Gloria P, AU - Beltrán,María, AU - Lai,Yi-Te, AU - Siddall,Mark E, Y1 - 2010/04/14/ PY - 2009/12/04/received PY - 2010/02/24/accepted PY - 2010/4/27/entrez PY - 2010/4/27/pubmed PY - 2011/6/17/medline SP - e10057 EP - e10057 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 5 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Leeches have gained a fearsome reputation by feeding externally on blood, often from human hosts. Orificial hirudiniasis is a condition in which a leech enters a body orifice, most often the nasopharyngeal region, but there are many cases of leeches infesting the eyes, urethra, vagina, or rectum. Several leech species particularly in Africa and Asia are well-known for their propensity to afflict humans. Because there has not previously been any data suggesting a close relationship for such geographically disparate species, this unnerving tendency to be invasive has been regarded only as a loathsome oddity and not a unifying character for a group of related organisms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new genus and species of leech from Perú was found feeding from the nasopharynx of humans. Unlike any other leech previously described, this new taxon has but a single jaw with very large teeth. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes using parsimony and Bayesian inference demonstrate that the new species belongs among a larger, global clade of leeches, all of which feed from the mucosal surfaces of mammals. CONCLUSIONS: This new species, found feeding from the upper respiratory tract of humans in Perú, clarifies an expansion of the family Praobdellidae to include the new species Tyrannobdella rex n. gen. n. sp., along with others in the genera Dinobdella, Myxobdella, Praobdella and Pintobdella. Moreover, the results clarify a single evolutionary origin of a group of leeches that specializes on mucous membranes, thus, posing a distinct threat to human health. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20418947/Tyrannobdella_rex_n__gen__n__sp__and_the_evolutionary_origins_of_mucosal_leech_infestations_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010057 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -