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First- and second-trimester WIC participation is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and early introduction of cow's milk during infancy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Existing literature suggests prenatal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) may reduce breastfeeding among low-income mothers. However, little is known about whether the timing of WIC entrance during pregnancy influences infant feeding decisions.

OBJECTIVE

This study assesses the association between the timing of prenatal participation in WIC and various infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding initiation, breastfeeding for at least 4 months, exclusive breastfeeding, formula feeding, and early introduction of cow's milk and solid food.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional survey matching of birth certificate data to mothers' interviews 9 months after the child's birth. Mothers provided information on participation in the WIC program, infant feeding practices, and sociodemographic characteristics.

SUBJECTS

A nationally representative sample of 4,450 births in 2001 from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort.

ANALYSES

Multivariate logistic regression techniques (using STATA 9.0 SE, Stata Company, College Station, TX) estimated the relationship between the timing of prenatal WIC participation and infant feeding practices.

RESULTS

Entry into the WIC program during the first or second trimester of pregnancy is associated with reduced likelihood of initiation of breastfeeding and early cow's milk introduction; and entry during the first trimester is associated with reduced duration of breastfeeding. WIC participation at any trimester is positively related to formula feeding.

CONCLUSIONS

Prenatal WIC participation is associated with a greater likelihood of providing babies infant formula rather than breastmilk after birth. Findings also indicate that there are critical prenatal periods for educating women about the health risks of early cow's milk introduction. Given the health implications of feeding infants cow's milk too early, WIC may be successful in educating women on the health risks of introducing complementary foods early, even if direct counseling on cow's milk is not provided.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY 10003, USA. kziol-guest@icpny.org

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Animals
    Breast Feeding
    Child Nutrition Sciences
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Educational Status
    Female
    Humans
    Infant
    Infant Care
    Infant Formula
    Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Infant, Newborn
    Logistic Models
    Male
    Milk
    Mothers
    Multivariate Analysis
    Poverty
    Pregnancy
    Pregnancy Trimester, First
    Pregnancy Trimester, Second
    Public Assistance
    Time Factors
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    20430131

    Citation

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M., and Daphne C. Hernandez. "First- and Second-trimester WIC Participation Is Associated With Lower Rates of Breastfeeding and Early Introduction of Cow's Milk During Infancy." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 110, no. 5, 2010, pp. 702-9.
    Ziol-Guest KM, Hernandez DC. First- and second-trimester WIC participation is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and early introduction of cow's milk during infancy. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(5):702-9.
    Ziol-Guest, K. M., & Hernandez, D. C. (2010). First- and second-trimester WIC participation is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and early introduction of cow's milk during infancy. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110(5), pp. 702-9. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.02.013.
    Ziol-Guest KM, Hernandez DC. First- and Second-trimester WIC Participation Is Associated With Lower Rates of Breastfeeding and Early Introduction of Cow's Milk During Infancy. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(5):702-9. PubMed PMID: 20430131.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - First- and second-trimester WIC participation is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and early introduction of cow's milk during infancy. AU - Ziol-Guest,Kathleen M, AU - Hernandez,Daphne C, PY - 2009/05/19/received PY - 2009/11/16/accepted PY - 2010/5/1/entrez PY - 2010/5/1/pubmed PY - 2010/5/8/medline SP - 702 EP - 9 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 110 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Existing literature suggests prenatal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) may reduce breastfeeding among low-income mothers. However, little is known about whether the timing of WIC entrance during pregnancy influences infant feeding decisions. OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the association between the timing of prenatal participation in WIC and various infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding initiation, breastfeeding for at least 4 months, exclusive breastfeeding, formula feeding, and early introduction of cow's milk and solid food. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey matching of birth certificate data to mothers' interviews 9 months after the child's birth. Mothers provided information on participation in the WIC program, infant feeding practices, and sociodemographic characteristics. SUBJECTS: A nationally representative sample of 4,450 births in 2001 from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort. ANALYSES: Multivariate logistic regression techniques (using STATA 9.0 SE, Stata Company, College Station, TX) estimated the relationship between the timing of prenatal WIC participation and infant feeding practices. RESULTS: Entry into the WIC program during the first or second trimester of pregnancy is associated with reduced likelihood of initiation of breastfeeding and early cow's milk introduction; and entry during the first trimester is associated with reduced duration of breastfeeding. WIC participation at any trimester is positively related to formula feeding. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal WIC participation is associated with a greater likelihood of providing babies infant formula rather than breastmilk after birth. Findings also indicate that there are critical prenatal periods for educating women about the health risks of early cow's milk introduction. Given the health implications of feeding infants cow's milk too early, WIC may be successful in educating women on the health risks of introducing complementary foods early, even if direct counseling on cow's milk is not provided. SN - 1878-3570 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20430131/First__and_second_trimester_WIC_participation_is_associated_with_lower_rates_of_breastfeeding_and_early_introduction_of_cow's_milk_during_infancy_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(10)00114-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -