[Effect of cadmium, alone or in combination with CaCl2, on the growth, antioxidative enzyme activity and cadmium absorption of Solanum nigrum L. var pauciflorum hairy roots].Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2010 Feb; 26(2):147-58.SW
To study if Solanum nigrum hairy roots can be used for phytoremediation of Cd contamination, we investigated the effects of cadmium (Cd) alone, and in combination with different concentrations of CaCl2, on growth, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and Cd absorption by hairy roots of S. nigrum L. var pauciflorum. The results showed that Cd concentrations of lower than 50 micromol/L enhanced the growth of hairy roots, while higher than 100 micromol/L inhibited growth and decreased the number of branched roots, also causing the root tips to become brown and shorter in length. In comparison with a control, the soluble protein content, the activities of SOD and POD in hairy roots cultures showed a trend of first increased and then gradually decreased, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content significantly increased, when increasing the Cd concentrations. Cd concentration of 100 micromol/L or 300 micromol/L in combination with 10-30 mmol/L CaCl2 resulted in a decreased content of soluble protein and MDA in the hairy roots, but an enhanced SOD activity. The increased POD activities were observed when cultured in 100 micromol/L Cd and 10-30 mmol/L CaCl2 but decreased when cultured in 300 micromol/L Cd and 10-30 mmol/L CaCl2. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry determination showed that the Cd absorbed and adsorbed by the hairy roots increased along with the increase of Cd concentration. The exogenous addition of 10-30 mmol/L CaCl2 could reduce the toxicity of Cd. This was achieved on one hand by reducing the absorption of Cd, on the other hand by decreasing the lipid peroxidation through regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD and POD in the hairy roots.