Simultaneous determination and assessment of 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan in tap water, bottled water and baby bottles.Environ Int. 2010 Aug; 36(6):557-62.EI
This study investigated the levels of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) in bottled water and tap water in Guangzhou and release of these chemicals from baby bottles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionization. Results show that 4-NP was present in all the bottled water while 17 out of 21 contained BPA and 18 out of 21 contained TCS. Their concentrations in bottled water ranged from 108 to 298 ng/L, 17.6 to 324 ng/L and 0.6 to 9.7 ng/L, respectively. Five of the tap water samples from six drinking water plants were found to contain 4-NP and BPA both in June and December, while TCS was detected in the same five plants only in June. The highest concentrations in tap water for 4-NP, BPA and TCS were 1987, 317 and 14.5ng/L, respectively. Daily intakes of 4-NP, BPA and TCS of adults by drinking 2L of tap water were estimated to be 1410, 148 and 10 ng/day, respectively. BPA was found to be released within 24h from four brands of baby bottles at room temperature (24 degrees C), 40 degrees C and 100 degrees C. Increased temperature led to higher release of BPA from the baby bottles. Estimated daily intakes of 4-NP, BPA and TCS for infants were 705, 1340 and 5 ng/day, respectively, by drinking 1L of tap water from a baby bottle at 40 degrees C. This study showed that the exposure to the three compounds from drinking water is unlikely to pose a health risk.