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The other side of the curve: examining the relationship between pre-stressor physiological responses and stress reactivity.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010 Oct; 35(9):1363-73.P

Abstract

There is widespread consensus that stress induces dramatic physiological changes, but no agreement on the quantitative parameters that are appropriate to measure these responses. More importantly, the interpretation of various stress measurements, and how individual responses should be evaluated, has not been properly addressed. Even the definition of baseline, against which stress responses must be measured, is not clearly established. The current experiment sought to address these shortcomings by comparing the predictive value of different calculated parameters for psychosocial and physiological measures of stress across individuals. Subjects were 29 male and 59 female healthy undergraduate students with saliva samples collected over a 3-h interval that included a Trier Social Stress Test. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase response were analyzed using the absolute concentration, the percent change in concentration, the area under the curve (Pruessner et al., 2003), and the arrival index (change from arrival to 1h after arrival). The arrival index correlated with the subsequent stress response for both cortisol (r=0.76, p<0.01) and alpha-amylase (r=0.86, p<0.01). The arrival index for both cortisol and alpha-amylase was also related to subjective ratings of anxiety following the psychosocial stressor. A subset of individuals with high self-reported anxiety also displayed higher reactivity in response to the psychosocial stressor. Thus, the magnitude of the difference in cortisol and alpha-amylase between arrival and 1h after arrival was a predictor of subsequent stress reactivity. These findings suggest that different psychosocial profiles may be reflected in cortisol and alpha-amylase changes. For this reason: (1) a recovery period after arrival is essential to establish a baseline, (2) the difference between arrival and post-recovery period baseline should be included in experimental designs as a predictive variable, and (3) transformation of individual measures into proportional changes relative to the arrival sample is very likely to obscure important underlying individual differences.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20456867

Citation

Balodis, Iris M., et al. "The Other Side of the Curve: Examining the Relationship Between Pre-stressor Physiological Responses and Stress Reactivity." Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 35, no. 9, 2010, pp. 1363-73.
Balodis IM, Wynne-Edwards KE, Olmstead MC. The other side of the curve: examining the relationship between pre-stressor physiological responses and stress reactivity. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35(9):1363-73.
Balodis, I. M., Wynne-Edwards, K. E., & Olmstead, M. C. (2010). The other side of the curve: examining the relationship between pre-stressor physiological responses and stress reactivity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(9), 1363-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.03.011
Balodis IM, Wynne-Edwards KE, Olmstead MC. The Other Side of the Curve: Examining the Relationship Between Pre-stressor Physiological Responses and Stress Reactivity. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35(9):1363-73. PubMed PMID: 20456867.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The other side of the curve: examining the relationship between pre-stressor physiological responses and stress reactivity. AU - Balodis,Iris M, AU - Wynne-Edwards,Katherine E, AU - Olmstead,Mary C, Y1 - 2010/04/24/ PY - 2009/10/17/received PY - 2010/02/03/revised PY - 2010/03/24/accepted PY - 2010/5/12/entrez PY - 2010/5/12/pubmed PY - 2011/2/3/medline SP - 1363 EP - 73 JF - Psychoneuroendocrinology JO - Psychoneuroendocrinology VL - 35 IS - 9 N2 - There is widespread consensus that stress induces dramatic physiological changes, but no agreement on the quantitative parameters that are appropriate to measure these responses. More importantly, the interpretation of various stress measurements, and how individual responses should be evaluated, has not been properly addressed. Even the definition of baseline, against which stress responses must be measured, is not clearly established. The current experiment sought to address these shortcomings by comparing the predictive value of different calculated parameters for psychosocial and physiological measures of stress across individuals. Subjects were 29 male and 59 female healthy undergraduate students with saliva samples collected over a 3-h interval that included a Trier Social Stress Test. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase response were analyzed using the absolute concentration, the percent change in concentration, the area under the curve (Pruessner et al., 2003), and the arrival index (change from arrival to 1h after arrival). The arrival index correlated with the subsequent stress response for both cortisol (r=0.76, p<0.01) and alpha-amylase (r=0.86, p<0.01). The arrival index for both cortisol and alpha-amylase was also related to subjective ratings of anxiety following the psychosocial stressor. A subset of individuals with high self-reported anxiety also displayed higher reactivity in response to the psychosocial stressor. Thus, the magnitude of the difference in cortisol and alpha-amylase between arrival and 1h after arrival was a predictor of subsequent stress reactivity. These findings suggest that different psychosocial profiles may be reflected in cortisol and alpha-amylase changes. For this reason: (1) a recovery period after arrival is essential to establish a baseline, (2) the difference between arrival and post-recovery period baseline should be included in experimental designs as a predictive variable, and (3) transformation of individual measures into proportional changes relative to the arrival sample is very likely to obscure important underlying individual differences. SN - 1873-3360 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20456867/The_other_side_of_the_curve:_examining_the_relationship_between_pre_stressor_physiological_responses_and_stress_reactivity_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0306-4530(10)00089-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -