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Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes: unusual presentations of cancer. A practical review.
Am J Med Sci 2010; 340(4):301-8AJ

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are uncommon and imperfectly understood and, therefore, are frequently underdiagnosed.

METHODS

We review the current literature on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of PNS.

RESULTS

PNS are a heterogeneous group of neurologic disorders caused by an immune response to an underlying malignancy. A 3-step diagnostic process is necessary to establish the diagnosis. We review the role of onconeural antibodies in the diagnosis and pathogenesis of PNS and describe recent advances in treatment, focusing on paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis, limbic encephalitis, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, subacute sensory neuronopathy and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

CONCLUSION

PNS often antedate the diagnosis of cancer, offering an opportunity for detecting cancer at an earlier and curable stage. Tests for paraneoplastic antibodies are often negative and do not rule out the diagnosis of a paraneoplastic syndrome. Certain clinical presentations should suggest a paraneoplastic syndrome, even in the absence of paraneoplastic antibodies, and prompt a thorough search for occult malignancy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL, USA. tareqbk410@hotmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20460982

Citation

Braik, Tareq, et al. "Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes: Unusual Presentations of Cancer. a Practical Review." The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 340, no. 4, 2010, pp. 301-8.
Braik T, Evans AT, Telfer M, et al. Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes: unusual presentations of cancer. A practical review. Am J Med Sci. 2010;340(4):301-8.
Braik, T., Evans, A. T., Telfer, M., & McDunn, S. (2010). Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes: unusual presentations of cancer. A practical review. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 340(4), pp. 301-8. doi:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e3181d9bb3b.
Braik T, et al. Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes: Unusual Presentations of Cancer. a Practical Review. Am J Med Sci. 2010;340(4):301-8. PubMed PMID: 20460982.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes: unusual presentations of cancer. A practical review. AU - Braik,Tareq, AU - Evans,Arthur T, AU - Telfer,Margaret, AU - McDunn,Susan, PY - 2010/5/13/entrez PY - 2010/5/13/pubmed PY - 2010/10/30/medline SP - 301 EP - 8 JF - The American journal of the medical sciences JO - Am. J. Med. Sci. VL - 340 IS - 4 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are uncommon and imperfectly understood and, therefore, are frequently underdiagnosed. METHODS: We review the current literature on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of PNS. RESULTS: PNS are a heterogeneous group of neurologic disorders caused by an immune response to an underlying malignancy. A 3-step diagnostic process is necessary to establish the diagnosis. We review the role of onconeural antibodies in the diagnosis and pathogenesis of PNS and describe recent advances in treatment, focusing on paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis, limbic encephalitis, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, subacute sensory neuronopathy and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome CONCLUSION: PNS often antedate the diagnosis of cancer, offering an opportunity for detecting cancer at an earlier and curable stage. Tests for paraneoplastic antibodies are often negative and do not rule out the diagnosis of a paraneoplastic syndrome. Certain clinical presentations should suggest a paraneoplastic syndrome, even in the absence of paraneoplastic antibodies, and prompt a thorough search for occult malignancy. SN - 1538-2990 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20460982/Paraneoplastic_neurological_syndromes:_unusual_presentations_of_cancer__A_practical_review_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-9629(15)31477-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -