Sonolytic, sonocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of chitosan in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles.Ultrason Sonochem. 2011 Jan; 18(1):149-57.US
The degradation of chitosan by means of ultrasound irradiation and its combination with heterogeneous (TiO(2)) was investigated. Emphasis was given on the effect of additives on degradation rate constants. Ultrasound irradiation (24 kHz) was provided by a sonicator, while an ultraviolet source of 16 W was used for UV irradiation. The extent of sonolytic degradation increased with increasing ultrasound power (in the range 30-90 W), while the presence of TiO(2) in the dark generally had little effect on degradation. On the other hand, TiO(2) sono-photocatalysis led to complete chitosan degradation in 60 min with increasing catalyst loading. TiO(2) sonophotocatalysis was always faster than the respective individual processes due to the enhanced formation of reactive radicals as well as the possible ultrasound-induced increase of the active surface area of the catalyst. The degraded chitosans were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and average molecular weight of ultrasonicated chitosan was determined by measurements of relative viscosity of samples. The results show that the total degree of deacetylation (DD) of chitosan did not change after degradation and the decrease of molecular weight led to transformation of crystal structure. A negative order for the dependence of the reaction rate on total molar concentration of chitosan solution within the degradation process was suggested.