Mineralocorticoid receptor activation contributes to salt-induced hypertension and renal injury in prepubertal Dahl salt-sensitive rats.Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 Sep; 25(9):2879-89.ND
Excessive prepubertal salt intake permanently increases blood pressure (BP). We examined the role that the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) plays in the salt-induced hypertension and renal damage of prepubertal Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats.
Prepubertal (6 weeks old) and adult (10 weeks old) Dahl SS rats fed a high (8.0%) salt (HS) diet for 10 weeks were compared in terms of BP and renal function. The effect of treatment between the ages of 4 and 10 weeks with the MR antagonist eplerenone (0.125% in chow), the vasodilator hydralazine (50 mg/kg/day in drinking water) or the superoxide dismutase mimetic 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-N-oxyl (tempol) (0.6 mmol/kg/day in drinking water) on the BP and renal function of prepubertal rats fed a HS diet for 10 weeks was also examined.
Excessive salt intake starting in prepuberty was associated with a higher BP increase and greater proteinuria than if it started in adulthood. Eplerenone moderately reduced BP and markedly improved renal injury during its administration in prepubertal rats. These effects continued after drug discontinuation. Hydralazine greatly decreased BP and reduced proteinuria, but these effects were completely lost after drug discontinuation. Excessive salt increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels, intrarenal macrophage infiltration and renal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and transforming growth factor-beta mRNA expression. Eplerenone, but not hydralazine, attenuated these salt-induced inflammatory reactions. Tempol improved salt-induced hypertension and renal injury, even after its discontinuation.
Dahl SS rats exposed to excessive salt in prepubescence show a permanent increase in susceptibility to salt-induced hypertension and proteinuria. MR activation may promote these effects at least in part by inducing oxidation and inflammation.