Hashimoto's thyroiditis: TGAb, TPOAb, TRAb and recovery from hypothyroidism.Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2008; 4(2):221-37ER
Hashimoto described four patients with goiter. The histology of the goiter was characterized by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration, fibrosis and epithelial cell destruction. Thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) have been used to diagnose Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Patients with positive TGAb and/or TPOAb have been assumed to have Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Approximately 10% of those with positive TGAb and/or TPOAb have hypothyroidism. There are two types of autoimmune thyroiditis: goitrous Hashimoto's thyroiditis and atrophic thyroiditis. The latter patients have blocking antibody (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]-stimulation blocking antibody [TSBAb]). TSBAb is a TSH-receptor antibody (TRAb). TSBAb causes thyroid atrophy and hypothyroidism. TGAb and/or TPOAb do not necessarily cause hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis usually receive life-long l-thyroxine therapy. However, spontaneous recovery from hypothyroidism has been reported. Patients who had Hashimoto's hypothyroidism and then Graves' hyperthyroidism (and vice versa), have also been reported. Hashimoto's hypothyroidism and Graves' hyperthyroidism could be the opposite spectrums of one disease.