Hypertension and diabetes prevalence among U.S. Hispanics by country of origin: the National Health Interview Survey 2000-2005.J Gen Intern Med. 2010 Aug; 25(8):847-52.JG
Despite their diverse cultural origins, Hispanics in the US are generally studied as a single ethnic group.
1) Assess demographic and disease-related differences among U.S. Hispanics by country of origin, and 2) Examine the mediating roles of socioeconomic status and acculturation on disease prevalence in these subgroups.
DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS
Using data from the 2000-2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we compared characteristics of Mexican-Americans with Hispanics originally from: Mexico, Puerto Rico, Central/South America, Cuba, and Dominican Republic (n = 31,240). We stratified the analysis by foreign versus US-born Hispanic subgroups and modeled hypertension and diabetes prevalence, adjusting for demographic and acculturation differences.
The six Hispanic subgroups were significantly diverse in all measured variables. Prevalence of hypertension (32%) and diabetes (15%) was highest in foreign-born Puerto Ricans. After adjusting for age, BMI, smoking, socioeconomic status and acculturation in foreign-born Hispanics, Puerto Ricans (OR = 1.76 [95% CI: 1.23, 2.50], p = 0.002) and Dominicans (OR = 1.93 [1.24, 3.00], p = 0.004), had higher prevalence of hypertension relative to Mexican-Americans. Adjusted diabetes prevalence among foreign-born Hispanics was half or less in Cubans (OR = 0.42 [0.25, 0.68] p < 0.001), Dominicans (OR = 0.48 [0.26, 0.91], p = 0.02) and Central/South Americans (OR = 0.51 [0.33, 0.78], p = 0.002) relative to Mexican-Americans. Among US-born Hispanic subgroups, Cubans had lower hypertension (OR = 0.53, [0.33, 0.83], p = 0.006) and Mexicans (OR = 0.76 [0.60, 0.98], p = 0.03) had lower diabetes prevalence compared to Mexican-Americans in adjusted models.
The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes varies significantly among Hispanics by country of origin. Health disparities research should include representation from all Hispanic subgroups.