Recommendations for the prevention of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in infants and children: use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23).Pediatrics. 2010 Jul; 126(1):186-90.Ped
Routine use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), available since 2000, has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) attributable to serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae contained in the vaccine. However, IPD caused by nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes has increased, and nonvaccine serotypes are now responsible for the majority of the remaining cases of IPD occurring in children. A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration, which, in addition to the 7 serotypes included in the original PCV7, contains the 6 pneumococcal serotypes responsible for 63% of IPD cases now occurring in children younger than 5 years. Because of the expanded coverage provided by PCV13, it will replace PCV7. This statement provides recommendations for (1) the transition from PCV7 to PCV13; (2) the routine use of PCV13 for healthy children and children with an underlying medical condition that increases the risk of IPD; (3) a supplemental dose of PCV13 for (a) healthy children 14 through 59 months of age who have completed the PCV7 series and (b) children 14 through 71 months of age with an underlying medical condition that increases the risk of IPD who have completed the PCV7 series; (4) "catch-up" immunization for children behind schedule; and (5) PCV13 for certain children at high risk from 6 through 18 years of age. In addition, recommendations for the use of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for children at high risk of IPD are also updated.