Development of artificial cranial base model with soft tissues for practical education: technical note.Neurosurgery 2010; 66(6 Suppl Operative):339-41; discussion341N
Improved educational tools for anatomic understanding and surgical simulation of the cranial base are needed because of the limited opportunities for cadaver dissection. A 3-dimensional cranial base model with retractable artificial dura mater is essential to simulate the epidural cranial base approach.
We developed our 3-dimensional cranial base model with artificial dura mater, venous sinuses, cavernous sinus, internal carotid artery, and cranial nerves, and the extradural temporopolar approach was simulated using this new model.
This model can be dissected with a surgical drill because of the artificial bone material. The periosteal dura was reconstructed in the medial wall of the cavernous sinus, periorbita, and periosteal bridge in the superior orbital fissure with yellow silicone. The meningeal dura was made with brown silicone. The single-layer dura mater could be dissected from the bone surface and retracted with a surgical spatula.
Extradural drilling of the superior orbital fissure and opening of the optic canal were similar to actual surgery. Extradural anterior clinoidectomy was performed via the extradural space by retracting the artificial dura mater. The artificial dura propria of the lateral wall in the cavernous sinus was successfully peeled from the artificial cranial nerves to complete the extradural temporopolar approach.
The improved 3-dimensional cranial base model provides a useful educational tool for the anatomic understanding and surgical simulation of extradural cranial base surgery.