Diamond, titanium dioxide, titanium silicon oxide, and barium strontium titanium oxide nanoparticles as matrixes for direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis of carbohydrates in plant tissues.Anal Chem. 2010 Jul 01; 82(13):5518-26.AC
Nanoparticles (NPs) of diamond, titanium dioxide, titanium silicon oxide, barium strontium titanium oxide, and silver (Ag) were examined for their potential as MALDI matrixes for direct laser desorption/ionization of carbohydrates, especially fructans, from plant tissue. Two sample preparation methods including solvent-assisted and solvent-free (dry) NPs deposition were performed and compared. All examined NPs except for Ag could desorb/ionize standard sucrose and fructans in positive and in negative ion mode. Ag NPs yielded good signals only for nonsalt-doped samples that were measured in the negative ion mode. In the case of in vivo studies, except for Ag, all NPs studied could desorb/ionize carbohydrates from tissue in both the positive and negative ion modes. Furthermore, compared to the results obtained with soluble sugars extracted from plant tissues, fructans with higher molecular weight intact molecular ions could be detected when the plant tissues were directly profiled. The limit of detection (LOD) of fructans and the ratios between signal intensities and fructan concentrations were analyzed. NPs had similar LODs for standard fructan triose (1-kestose) in the positive ion mode and better LODs in the negative ion mode when compared with the common crystalline organic MALDI matrixes used for carbohydrates (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and nor-harmane) or carbon nanotubes. Solvent-free NP deposition on tissues partially improves the signal acquisition. Although lower signal-to-noise ratio sugar signals were acquired from the tissues when compared to the solvent-assisted method, the reproducibility averaged over all sample was more uniform.