Nutritional rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children and adolescents.Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2010 Mar-Apr; 7(3):283-91PE
Nutritional rickets continues to be a public health problem in many countries despite the presence of cheap and effective means of preventing the disease. Deficiency of vitamin D is associated with rickets in growing children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D deficiency is attributed to a variety of causes including diet, atmospheric pollution, religious practices that restrict sunlight exposure (clothing), geographic latitude and altitude, season, and time of the day. The clinical findings of rickets can vary among stages of the disease. It is recommended that healthy infants, children and adolescents take at least 400 IU vitamin D per day to prevent rickets and vitamin D deficiency. Pediatricians and other healthcare professionals should try to ensure that children and adolescents receive daily vitamin D requirements appropriate for their risk factors, traditions, and customs. Additionally, it is important to use every opportunity to ensure that effective preventive strategies are put in practice.