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Pentosidine and N-carboxymethyl-lysine: biomarkers for type 2 diabetic retinopathy.

Abstract

PURPOSE

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulation may result from chronic hyperglycemia promoting generation and onset of microangiopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and levels of AGEs, pentosidine, and N-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) in aqueous humor and serum of human patients and their role in predicting the progression of DR.

METHODS

Ninety patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 nondiabetic patients underwent cataract surgery. The diabetic group was divided into 3 subgroups: 35 patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (mild NPDR), 30 patients with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (severe NPDR), and 25 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In the samples, pentosidine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and CML using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

RESULTS

Serum levels of pentosidine and CML were significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to nondiabetic controls (p<0.001). In diabetic patients, serum pentosidine and CML levels were significantly higher in patients who had PDR than in those with mild NPDR or severe NPDR (both p<0.001). A significant difference was found between aqueous humor CML levels in diabetic and nondiabetic patients and increased along with progression of DR. Significant correlations existed between serum pentosidine and aqueous CML in severe NPDR and PDR (p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with type 2 DM, serum levels of pentosidine and CML are related to severity of retinopathy. In addition, aqueous humor level of CML increased along with progression of DR. Pentosidine and CML can be used as biochemical markers of glycoxidation and related to onset or progression of DR.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. asaadghanem@hotmail.com

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Aqueous Humor
    Arginine
    Biomarkers
    Blood Glucose
    Cataract Extraction
    Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Diabetic Retinopathy
    Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
    Female
    Glycated Hemoglobin A
    Glycation End Products, Advanced
    Humans
    Lysine
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Visual Acuity

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    20544678

    Citation

    Ghanem, Asaad A., et al. "Pentosidine and N-carboxymethyl-lysine: Biomarkers for Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy." European Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 21, no. 1, 2011, pp. 48-54.
    Ghanem AA, Elewa A, Arafa LF. Pentosidine and N-carboxymethyl-lysine: biomarkers for type 2 diabetic retinopathy. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2011;21(1):48-54.
    Ghanem, A. A., Elewa, A., & Arafa, L. F. (2011). Pentosidine and N-carboxymethyl-lysine: biomarkers for type 2 diabetic retinopathy. European Journal of Ophthalmology, 21(1), pp. 48-54.
    Ghanem AA, Elewa A, Arafa LF. Pentosidine and N-carboxymethyl-lysine: Biomarkers for Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2011;21(1):48-54. PubMed PMID: 20544678.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Pentosidine and N-carboxymethyl-lysine: biomarkers for type 2 diabetic retinopathy. AU - Ghanem,Asaad A, AU - Elewa,Ahmed, AU - Arafa,Lamiaa F, PY - 2010/04/21/accepted PY - 2010/6/15/entrez PY - 2010/6/15/pubmed PY - 2011/3/24/medline SP - 48 EP - 54 JF - European journal of ophthalmology JO - Eur J Ophthalmol VL - 21 IS - 1 N2 - PURPOSE: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulation may result from chronic hyperglycemia promoting generation and onset of microangiopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and levels of AGEs, pentosidine, and N-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) in aqueous humor and serum of human patients and their role in predicting the progression of DR. METHODS: Ninety patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 nondiabetic patients underwent cataract surgery. The diabetic group was divided into 3 subgroups: 35 patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (mild NPDR), 30 patients with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (severe NPDR), and 25 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In the samples, pentosidine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and CML using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Serum levels of pentosidine and CML were significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to nondiabetic controls (p<0.001). In diabetic patients, serum pentosidine and CML levels were significantly higher in patients who had PDR than in those with mild NPDR or severe NPDR (both p<0.001). A significant difference was found between aqueous humor CML levels in diabetic and nondiabetic patients and increased along with progression of DR. Significant correlations existed between serum pentosidine and aqueous CML in severe NPDR and PDR (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 DM, serum levels of pentosidine and CML are related to severity of retinopathy. In addition, aqueous humor level of CML increased along with progression of DR. Pentosidine and CML can be used as biochemical markers of glycoxidation and related to onset or progression of DR. SN - 1724-6016 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20544678/Pentosidine_and_N_carboxymethyl_lysine:_biomarkers_for_type_2_diabetic_retinopathy_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&amp;PAGE=linkout&amp;SEARCH=20544678.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -