A controlled, evidence-based trial of paliperidone palmitate, a long-acting injectable antipsychotic, in schizophrenia.Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010 Sep; 35(10):2072-82.N
Paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting injectable antipsychotic agent. This 13-week, multicenter, randomized (1 : 1 : 1 : 1), double-blind, parallel-group study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fixed 25, 50, and 100 milligram equivalent (mg equiv.) doses of paliperidone palmitate vs placebo administered as gluteal injections on days 1 and 8, then every 4 weeks (days 36 and 64) in 518 adult patients with schizophrenia. The intent-to-treat analysis set (N=514) was 67% men and 67% White, with a mean age of 41 years. All paliperidone palmitate dose groups showed significant improvement vs placebo in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (primary efficacy measure; 25 and 50 mg equiv., p=0.02; 100 mg equiv., p<0.001), as well as Clinical Global Impression Severity scores (p< or =0.006) and PANSS negative and positive symptom Marder factor scores (p< or =0.04). The Personal and Social Performance scale showed no significant difference between treatment groups. The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between groups. Parkinsonism, the most frequently reported extrapyramidal symptom, was reported at similar rates for placebo (5%) and paliperidone palmitate (5-6% across doses). The mean body mass index and mean weight showed relatively small dose-related increases during paliperidone palmitate treatment. Investigator-evaluated injection-site pain, swelling, redness, and induration were similar across treatment groups; scores for patient-evaluated injection-site pain (visual analog scale) were similar across groups and diminished with time. All doses of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate were efficacious and generally tolerated, both locally and systemically. Paliperidone palmitate offers the potential to improve outcomes in adults with symptomatic schizophrenia.