[Evaluation and management of enuresis. An update].Urologe A. 2010 Jul; 49(7):861-9; quiz 870.U
Enuresis is defined as nocturnal bed wetting for at least 2 nights per month in children older than 5 years. At this age the prevalence of enuresis is about 15-20%. More than 50% of these children show day time symptoms, such as frequency, urgency and incontinence (non-monosymptomatic enuresis). The other children are asymptomatic during day time and wet the bed during the night time (monosymptomatic enuresis). The main pathogenetic factors are nycturia, detrusor overactivity and reduced arousability. Psychological and psychiatric aspects, genetics and obstipation play an additional role in the etiology. Basic diagnostic investigations are mandatory before treatment. Clinical history, physical examination, sonography of the urinary tract, urinalysis and bladder diary are prerequisites before any therapeutic steps are taken. The cornerstones of primary enuresis therapy are general lifestyle advice, pharmacotherapy and alarm devices. Therapy-resistant children deserve further evaluation and a multidisciplinary therapy approach. After careful evaluation specific therapy is efficient in approximately 80% of patients.