Effect of pulse energy, frequency and length on holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser fragmentation efficiency in non-floating artificial urinary calculi.J Endourol. 2010 Jul; 24(7):1135-40.JE
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser lithotripsy is the standard lithotrite in ureteroscopy. We investigated the influence of pulse frequency, energy and length on the fragmentation efficiency of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy in non-floating artificial stones in vitro.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Stone fragmentation efficiency of three different Ho:YAG laser devices were evaluated in vitro at different pulse energy (1.0 and 2.0 J) and frequency settings (5 and 10 Hz), resulting in a standardized output power of 10W, respectively. Where possible, pulse length was modified (350 vs 700 microsec). Each setting was performed with a 273 microm and a 365 microm fiber. Lithotripsy was conducted using non-repulsive stones consisting of soft stone (plaster of Paris) and hard stone composition (Fujirock type 4).
Our results showed an increased stone disintegration efficiency at higher pulse energy (2.0 J/5 Hz vs 1.0 J/10 Hz) independently of two fiber diameters and stone types applied in this study (P < 0.05 in 18 of 20 groups). Similarly, reduction of the pulse length from 700 to 350 microsec resulted in a higher stone disintegration (P < 0.05 in 13 of 16 groups). This effect was most prominent when applied to soft stones. Higher fiber diameter was not constantly associated with an increase in stone disintegration.
We demonstrate that an increase of pulse energy and a reduction of pulse length at a standardized output power of 10W can improve Ho:YAG laser fragmentation efficiency in vitro in nonfloating stones. These results may potentially affect clinical practice of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy in impacted or large stones, when retropulsion is excluded.