Mechanisms mediating the ability of caffeine to influence MDMA ('Ecstasy')-induced hyperthermia in rats.Br J Pharmacol 2010; 160(4):860-77BJ
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Caffeine exacerbates the hyperthermia associated with an acute exposure to 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy') in rats. The present study investigated the mechanisms mediating this interaction.
Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with caffeine (10 mg x kg(-1); i.p.) and MDMA (15 mg x kg(-1); i.p.) alone and in combination. Core body temperatures were monitored before and after drug administration.
Central catecholamine depletion blocked MDMA-induced hyperthermia and its exacerbation by caffeine. Caffeine provoked a hyperthermic response when the catecholamine releaser d-amphetamine (1 mg x kg(-1)) was combined with the 5-HT releaser D-fenfluramine (5 mg x kg(-1)) or the non-selective dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine (1 mg x kg(-1)) was combined with the 5-HT(2) receptor agonist DOI (2 mg x kg(-1)) but not following either agents alone. Pretreatment with the dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist Schering (SCH) 23390 (1 mg x kg(-1)), the 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist ketanserin (5 mg x kg(-1)) or alpha(1)-adreno- receptor antagonist prazosin (0.2 mg x kg(-1)) blocked MDMA-induced hyperthermia and its exacerbation by caffeine. Co-administration of a combination of MDMA with the PDE-4 inhibitor rolipram (0.025 mg x kg(-1)) and the adenosine A(1/2) receptor antagonist 9-chloro-2-(2-furanyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-C]quinazolin-5-amine 15943 (10 mg x kg(-1)) or the A(2A) receptor antagonist SCH 58261 (2 mg x kg(-1)) but not the A(1) receptor antagonist DPCPX (10 mg x kg(-1)) exacerbated MDMA-induced hyperthermia.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
A mechanism comprising 5-HT and catecholamines is proposed to mediate MDMA-induced hyperthermia. A combination of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism and PDE inhibition can account for the exacerbation of MDMA-induced hyperthermia by caffeine.