The effect of farmed trout on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men.Br J Nutr 2010; 104(10):1528-36BJ
Increased intake of marine long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) may decrease the risk of CVD and reduce mortality by lowering serum TAG and blood pressure (BP). Furthermore, n-3 LCPUFA may affect novel CVD risk markers related to inflammation and vascular function. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of farmed trout on novel and traditional CVD risk markers in healthy men, and to evaluate whether this was affected by the aquacultural feed regime. We performed a parallel, 8-week intervention study in which sixty-eight healthy male volunteers were randomised to consume either a daily meal with 150 g farmed trout raised on either marine or vegetable-based feed, or a reference meal containing 150 g chicken. Twenty-four hour BP, pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, fatty acid composition of erythrocyte (RBC), and concentrations of TAG, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other markers of inflammation were measured at weeks 0 and 8. RBC content of total n-3 LCPUFA, both EPA and DHA, was significantly higher among men consuming trout raised on marine feed compared with men consuming the vegetable-fed trout or chicken. The three intervention groups did not differ significantly with respect to any of the other outcome variables, although there were trends towards associations between the changes in RBC n-3 LCPUFA and those in BP and CRP. In the present study, we conclude that we could not confirm the fish oil-induced reduction in CVD risk markers after daily consumption of trout with high or low n-3 LCPUFA content. However, trout raised on vegetable-based feed had less pronounced impact on RBC n-3 LCPUFA status.