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Tissue injury and cellular immune responses to mercuric chloride exposure in the common mussel Mytilus edulis: modulation by lipopolysaccharide.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010 Sep; 73(6):1338-44.EE

Abstract

Little is known about the immunotoxic effects of sublethal mercury (Hg) exposure in bivalves, and whether or not stimulation of the immune system exacerbates Hg toxicity. The mussel, Mytilus edulis, was exposed to a total inorganic Hg concentration of 50 microgl(-1) as HgCl2 for up to 11 days compared to no added Hg controls. Then the immune functions of haemocytes, haematology, biochemistry and organ histology were assessed. Selected experiments were then repeated in mussels injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate the immune system prior to Hg exposure. Hg exposure alone caused Hg accumulation mainly in gills and digestive gland, and to a lesser extent in the adductor muscle and haemolymph. This general pattern of Hg accumulation also occurred during the Hg plus LPS experiments. Hg exposure alone caused a transient increase of phagocytosis, but no Hg-dependent effects on neutral red retention or the cytotoxicity of haemocytes. Changes in haemolymph Na+, K+ and glucose levels were negligible during Hg exposure alone compared to controls. However, histological examination showed tissues injuries consistent with inflammation in the gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle during Hg exposure alone. LPS injection had a significant effect (Kruskal Wallis, P=0.02) on circulating haemocytes numbers at the end of the experiment compared to saline injected controls and the Hg+LPS treatment (mean+/-S.E.M., n=6, cells ml(-1)x10(6)); control, 2.1+/-0.08; LPS treated, 3.18+/-0.36, and LPS+Hg, 2.1+/-0.2. The Hg+LPS treatment also caused a transient decline in superoxide dismutase activity in haemocytes (85% decline, Kruskal Wallis, P=0.006) compared to controls. Target tissue inflammation and injury was greatly increased by the effect of Hg exposure with an LPS injection compared to either treatment alone. We conclude that Hg can cause inflammation in mussels in vivo, and that stimulation with LPS can greatly increase Hg-dependent immunotoxicity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Biomedical and Biological Science, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20598371

Citation

Sheir, Sherin K., et al. "Tissue Injury and Cellular Immune Responses to Mercuric Chloride Exposure in the Common Mussel Mytilus Edulis: Modulation By Lipopolysaccharide." Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 73, no. 6, 2010, pp. 1338-44.
Sheir SK, Handy RD, Galloway TS. Tissue injury and cellular immune responses to mercuric chloride exposure in the common mussel Mytilus edulis: modulation by lipopolysaccharide. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010;73(6):1338-44.
Sheir, S. K., Handy, R. D., & Galloway, T. S. (2010). Tissue injury and cellular immune responses to mercuric chloride exposure in the common mussel Mytilus edulis: modulation by lipopolysaccharide. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73(6), 1338-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.01.014
Sheir SK, Handy RD, Galloway TS. Tissue Injury and Cellular Immune Responses to Mercuric Chloride Exposure in the Common Mussel Mytilus Edulis: Modulation By Lipopolysaccharide. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010;73(6):1338-44. PubMed PMID: 20598371.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Tissue injury and cellular immune responses to mercuric chloride exposure in the common mussel Mytilus edulis: modulation by lipopolysaccharide. AU - Sheir,Sherin K, AU - Handy,Richard D, AU - Galloway,Tamara S, Y1 - 2010/07/02/ PY - 2009/10/21/received PY - 2010/01/19/revised PY - 2010/01/20/accepted PY - 2010/7/6/entrez PY - 2010/7/6/pubmed PY - 2010/12/29/medline SP - 1338 EP - 44 JF - Ecotoxicology and environmental safety JO - Ecotoxicol Environ Saf VL - 73 IS - 6 N2 - Little is known about the immunotoxic effects of sublethal mercury (Hg) exposure in bivalves, and whether or not stimulation of the immune system exacerbates Hg toxicity. The mussel, Mytilus edulis, was exposed to a total inorganic Hg concentration of 50 microgl(-1) as HgCl2 for up to 11 days compared to no added Hg controls. Then the immune functions of haemocytes, haematology, biochemistry and organ histology were assessed. Selected experiments were then repeated in mussels injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate the immune system prior to Hg exposure. Hg exposure alone caused Hg accumulation mainly in gills and digestive gland, and to a lesser extent in the adductor muscle and haemolymph. This general pattern of Hg accumulation also occurred during the Hg plus LPS experiments. Hg exposure alone caused a transient increase of phagocytosis, but no Hg-dependent effects on neutral red retention or the cytotoxicity of haemocytes. Changes in haemolymph Na+, K+ and glucose levels were negligible during Hg exposure alone compared to controls. However, histological examination showed tissues injuries consistent with inflammation in the gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle during Hg exposure alone. LPS injection had a significant effect (Kruskal Wallis, P=0.02) on circulating haemocytes numbers at the end of the experiment compared to saline injected controls and the Hg+LPS treatment (mean+/-S.E.M., n=6, cells ml(-1)x10(6)); control, 2.1+/-0.08; LPS treated, 3.18+/-0.36, and LPS+Hg, 2.1+/-0.2. The Hg+LPS treatment also caused a transient decline in superoxide dismutase activity in haemocytes (85% decline, Kruskal Wallis, P=0.006) compared to controls. Target tissue inflammation and injury was greatly increased by the effect of Hg exposure with an LPS injection compared to either treatment alone. We conclude that Hg can cause inflammation in mussels in vivo, and that stimulation with LPS can greatly increase Hg-dependent immunotoxicity. SN - 1090-2414 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20598371/Tissue_injury_and_cellular_immune_responses_to_mercuric_chloride_exposure_in_the_common_mussel_Mytilus_edulis:_modulation_by_lipopolysaccharide_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0147-6513(10)00015-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -