Flexible ureterorenoscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy for the management of renal stone burdens that measure 2 to 3 cm: a multi-institutional experience.J Endourol. 2010 Oct; 24(10):1583-8.JE
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL) is the current standard of care for management of large renal stones (>2 cm). Recent studies have evaluated flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS)/holmium laser lithotripsy as an alternative treatment for patients with contraindications to or preference against PCNL. Stones in an intermediate size range (2-3 cm) may be most amenable to URS/laser lithotripsy as definitive treatment in a single stage. We report a multi-institutional series of URS/laser lithotripsy for renal stone burdens that measure 2 to 3 cm.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Patients who underwent URS/holmium laser lithotripsy for renal stones that measured 2 to 3 cm were identified retrospectively at three tertiary care centers. Demographic information, disease characteristics, and perioperative and postoperative data were gathered. Patients with renal stone burdens of 2 to 3 cm who were treated by URS/laser lithotripsy and had at least one postoperative visit and imaging study were included. Stone clearance was evaluated using 0-2 mm and <4 mm residual stone burden on postoperative imaging.
One hundred and twenty patients underwent URS/holmium laser lithotripsy for renal stones of 2 to 3 cm. Mean stone burden was 2.4 cm, and mean body mass index was 29.3 kg/m². Indications for URS/laser lithotripsy vs PCNL included patient preference (57), technical or anatomic factors (24), patient comorbidities (17), failed shockwave lithotripsy (9), patient body habitus (3), solitary kidney (3), chronic renal insufficiency (3), and strict anticoagulation (2). Thirty-one (26%) patients had stent placement preprocedure, and 94 (78%) patients underwent outpatient surgery. A ureteral access sheath was used in 67%. One hundred and one (84%) patients underwent single-stage procedures. There was one intraoperative complication (ureteral perforation), and there were eight minor postoperative complications (6.7%). The reoperation rate through the mean 18-month follow-up was 3/120 or 2.5%. Seventy-six (63%) patients had residual stone burden of 0 to 2 mm, and 100 (83%) patients had residual burden of <4 mm.
We demonstrate that single-stage URS/holmium laser lithotripsy is effective for management of renal stones that measure 2 to 3 cm through intermediate follow-up. Staged procedures can be used selectively for technical reasons or disease factors. Although PCNL achieves superior stone clearance overall, URS/laser lithotripsy is a viable treatment option for selected patients.