The Pseudomonas syringae effector protein HopZ1a suppresses effector-triggered immunity.New Phytol. 2010 Sep; 187(4):1018-33.NP
*The Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae type III effector HopZ1a is a member of the HopZ effector family of cysteine-proteases that triggers immunity in Arabidopsis. This immunity is dependent on HopZ1a cysteine-protease activity, and independent of known resistance genes. We have previously shown that HopZ1a-triggered immunity is partially additive to that triggered by AvrRpt2. These partially additive effects could be caused by at least two mechanisms: their signalling pathways share a common element(s), or one effector interferes with the response triggered by the other. *Here, we investigate the molecular basis for the partially additive effect displayed by AvrRpt2- and HopZ1a-triggered immunities, by analysing competitive indices, hypersensitive response and symptom induction, PR-1 accumulation, expression of PR genes, and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) induction. *Partially additive effects between these defence responses require HopZ1a cysteine-protease activity, and also take place between HopZ1a and AvrRps4 or AvrRpm1-triggered responses. We establish that HopZ1a-triggered immunity is independent of salicylic acid (SA), EDS1, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET)-dependent pathways, and show that HopZ1a suppresses the induction of PR-1 and PR-5 associated with P. syringae pv tomato (Pto)-triggered effector-triggered immunity (ETI)-like defences, AvrRpt2-triggered immunity, and Pto or Pto (avrRpt2) activation of SAR, and that suppression requires HopZ1a cysteine-protease activity. *Our results indicate that HopZ1a triggers an unusual resistance independent of known pathways and suppresses SA and EDS1-dependent resistance.