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Online motor control in children with developmental coordination disorder: chronometric analysis of double-step reaching performance.
Child Care Health Dev. 2011 Jan; 37(1):111-22.CC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Although there are a number of plausible accounts to explain movement clumsiness in children [or developmental coordination disorder (DCD)], the cause(s) of the disorder remain(s) an issue of debate. One aspect of motor control that is particularly important to the fluid expression of skill is rapid online control (ROC). Data on DCD have been conflicting. While some recent work using double-step reaching suggests no difficulty in online control, others suggest deficits (e.g. based on sequential pointing). To help resolve this debate, we suggest two things: use of recent neuro-computational models as a framework for investigating motor control in DCD, and more rigorous investigation of double-step reaching. Our working assumption here is that ROC is only viable through the seamless integration of predictive (or forward) models of movement and feedback-based mechanisms.

AIM

The aim of this chronometric study was to explore ROC in children with DCD using a double-step reaching paradigm. We predicted slower online adjustments in DCD based on the argument that these children manifest a core difficulty in predictive control.

METHODS

Participants were a group of 17 children with DCD and 27 typically developing children aged between 7 and 12 years. Visual targets were presented on a 17-inch LCD touch screen, inclined to an angle of 15° from horizontal. The children were instructed to press each target as it appeared as quickly and accurately as possible. For 80% of the trials, the central target location remained unchanged for the duration of the movement (non-jump trials), while for the remaining 20% of trials, the target jumped at movement onset to one of the two peripheral locations (jump trials). Reaction time (RT), movement time (MT) and reaching errors were recorded.

RESULTS

For both groups, RT did not vary according to trial condition, while children with DCD were slower to initiate movement. Further, the MT of children with DCD was prolonged to a far greater extent on jump trials relative to controls, with a large effect size. As well, children with DCD committed significantly more errors, notably a reduced ability to inhibit central responses on jump trials.

CONCLUSION

Our findings help reconcile some disparate findings in the literature using similar tasks. The pattern of performance in children with DCD suggests impairment in the ability to make rapid online adjustments that are based on a predictive (or internal) model of the action. These results pave the way for future kinematic investigation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Discipline of Psychology, School of Health Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20637020

Citation

Hyde, C, and P Wilson. "Online Motor Control in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: Chronometric Analysis of Double-step Reaching Performance." Child: Care, Health and Development, vol. 37, no. 1, 2011, pp. 111-22.
Hyde C, Wilson P. Online motor control in children with developmental coordination disorder: chronometric analysis of double-step reaching performance. Child Care Health Dev. 2011;37(1):111-22.
Hyde, C., & Wilson, P. (2011). Online motor control in children with developmental coordination disorder: chronometric analysis of double-step reaching performance. Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(1), 111-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2010.01131.x
Hyde C, Wilson P. Online Motor Control in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: Chronometric Analysis of Double-step Reaching Performance. Child Care Health Dev. 2011;37(1):111-22. PubMed PMID: 20637020.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Online motor control in children with developmental coordination disorder: chronometric analysis of double-step reaching performance. AU - Hyde,C, AU - Wilson,P, PY - 2010/7/20/entrez PY - 2010/7/20/pubmed PY - 2011/4/30/medline SP - 111 EP - 22 JF - Child: care, health and development JO - Child Care Health Dev VL - 37 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Although there are a number of plausible accounts to explain movement clumsiness in children [or developmental coordination disorder (DCD)], the cause(s) of the disorder remain(s) an issue of debate. One aspect of motor control that is particularly important to the fluid expression of skill is rapid online control (ROC). Data on DCD have been conflicting. While some recent work using double-step reaching suggests no difficulty in online control, others suggest deficits (e.g. based on sequential pointing). To help resolve this debate, we suggest two things: use of recent neuro-computational models as a framework for investigating motor control in DCD, and more rigorous investigation of double-step reaching. Our working assumption here is that ROC is only viable through the seamless integration of predictive (or forward) models of movement and feedback-based mechanisms. AIM: The aim of this chronometric study was to explore ROC in children with DCD using a double-step reaching paradigm. We predicted slower online adjustments in DCD based on the argument that these children manifest a core difficulty in predictive control. METHODS: Participants were a group of 17 children with DCD and 27 typically developing children aged between 7 and 12 years. Visual targets were presented on a 17-inch LCD touch screen, inclined to an angle of 15° from horizontal. The children were instructed to press each target as it appeared as quickly and accurately as possible. For 80% of the trials, the central target location remained unchanged for the duration of the movement (non-jump trials), while for the remaining 20% of trials, the target jumped at movement onset to one of the two peripheral locations (jump trials). Reaction time (RT), movement time (MT) and reaching errors were recorded. RESULTS: For both groups, RT did not vary according to trial condition, while children with DCD were slower to initiate movement. Further, the MT of children with DCD was prolonged to a far greater extent on jump trials relative to controls, with a large effect size. As well, children with DCD committed significantly more errors, notably a reduced ability to inhibit central responses on jump trials. CONCLUSION: Our findings help reconcile some disparate findings in the literature using similar tasks. The pattern of performance in children with DCD suggests impairment in the ability to make rapid online adjustments that are based on a predictive (or internal) model of the action. These results pave the way for future kinematic investigation. SN - 1365-2214 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20637020/Online_motor_control_in_children_with_developmental_coordination_disorder:_chronometric_analysis_of_double_step_reaching_performance_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2010.01131.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -