[Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias in 7 children].Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2010 Apr; 48(4):297-300.ZE
Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) have been increasing in children in recent years. The type and prognosis of IIPs in children in China has not been clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the type and prognosis of IIPs in children.
Seven children diagnosed with IIPs from December 2003 to March 2007 were retrospectively studied. The clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features, type and prognosis of IIPs, were reviewed.
Of the seven patients with IIPs, three were diagnosed with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP)/bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), one was diagnosed with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and the remaining three were diagnosed with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). The chief complaints of these patients were chronic cough. Six patients had shortness of breath. Clubbed fingers were found in one patient with UIP and two patients with NSIP. The characteristic computed tomographic findings of COP/BOOP were multiple patchy peripheral consolidation, associated with centrilobular nodules and bronchiole wall thickening in 2 cases and bronchiolectasis in 1 case. In NSIP, diffuse or basal ground-glass opacities predominated over reticular opacities with traction bronchiectasis only in one case. UIP was manifested by patchy infiltrate with predominant honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and interlobular septal thickening. Two patients with COP/BOOP had plugs of connective tissue within a bronchiole and the adjacent alveolar ducts and alveolar spaces. Lung biopsies showed predominantly interstitial chronic inflammation with infiltrate of lymphocytes and some plasma cells and alveolar septum thickening in three patients with NSIP. One case with NSIP showed a mixed fibrosing and prominent interstitial chronic inflammation. The key histological findings of the UIP was a heterogeneous appearance, with alternating areas of relatively normal lung, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. All patients were treated with prednisone. The abnormal findings of chest radiography resolved completely after four to twelve months' therapy in three patients with COP/BOOP. The combination of prednisone and MTX or 6-MP was given to the two patients with NSIP. The symptoms and chest radiographic abnormality disappeared except the presence of a few cyst after treatment. One case with NSIP and the case with UIP had not been improved remarkably.
COP/BOOP, NSIP and UIP might occur in children in China. The typing of IIPs was based on clinical-radiologic-pathologic features. Steroid was the first choice for IIPs. The prognosis of IIPs varied among different types.