Controversies in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis.Expert Rev Respir Med. 2010 Aug; 4(4):463-77.ER
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) including nasal polyps is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the mucosa of the nose and one or more paranasal sinuses. Despite differing hypotheses, the cause remains poorly understood. The key issue is the maintaining of ostial patency. CRS with nasal polyps is considered to be a subgroup of CRS. Major symptoms are nasal congestion or blockage, loss of smell, rhinorrhea, post-nasal drip, and facial pain or pressure. CRS is associated with lower airway disease such asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. In CRS with and without nasal polyps, medical treatment, including nasal and oral corticosteroids, is the first therapeutic option. The treatment of CRS still remains an unmet need. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment and are the most effective drugs for treating airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and CRS. Endoscopic sinus surgery is only recommended when medical treatment fails. After surgery, medical treatment, including nasal and oral corticosteroids, is recommended.