Linear and non-linear EEG analysis of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during a cognitive task.Clin Neurophysiol 2010; 121(11):1863-70CN
We aimed to investigate whether electroencephalograph (EEG) dynamics differ in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with healthy subjects during the performance of a cognitive task.
We recorded EEGs from 19 scalp electrodes in 11 adolescent boys with ADHD and 12 age-matched healthy boys while the subjects were at rest and during a continuous performance test (CPT). The approximate entropy (ApEn), a non-linear information-theoretic measure, was calculated to quantify the complexity of the EEGs.
The mean ApEn of the ADHD patients was significantly lower than the healthy subjects over the right frontal regions (Fp2 and F8) during the performance of the cognitive task, but not at rest. The spectral analysis showed significant differences between the two groups in the P3 and T4 regions at rest and the Fp2 and F8 regions during task performance.
The differences in EEG complexity between the two groups suggest that cortical information processing is altered in ADHD adolescents, and thus their levels of cortical activation may be insufficient to meet the cognitive requirements of attention-demanding tasks.
This study suggests that a non-linear measure such as ApEn is useful for investigating neural dysfunctions in adolescents with ADHD.