Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use.
Environ Pollut 2010; 158(10):3179-85EP

Abstract

In this study of wastewater treatment plants in three Canadian cities, selected illicit drugs, including cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy (i.e. MDMA) were detected in untreated wastewater. Cocaine was the most widely used illicit drug at a median level for the 3 cities of 15.7 doses per day per 1000 people. For the other drugs, the median doses per day per 1000 people were 1.8 for amphetamine, 4.5 for methamphetamine and 0.4 for ecstasy. Methamphetamine use was highest in the largest city and cocaine use was lowest in the smallest city. Removal of the illicit drugs by wastewater treatment was generally >50%, except in a WWTP that uses primary treatment. The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8, Canada. cmetcalfe@trentu.caNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20667638

Citation

Metcalfe, Chris, et al. "Illicit Drugs in Canadian Municipal Wastewater and Estimates of Community Drug Use." Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), vol. 158, no. 10, 2010, pp. 3179-85.
Metcalfe C, Tindale K, Li H, et al. Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use. Environ Pollut. 2010;158(10):3179-85.
Metcalfe, C., Tindale, K., Li, H., Rodayan, A., & Yargeau, V. (2010). Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 158(10), pp. 3179-85. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2010.07.002.
Metcalfe C, et al. Illicit Drugs in Canadian Municipal Wastewater and Estimates of Community Drug Use. Environ Pollut. 2010;158(10):3179-85. PubMed PMID: 20667638.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use. AU - Metcalfe,Chris, AU - Tindale,Kathryn, AU - Li,Hongxia, AU - Rodayan,Angela, AU - Yargeau,Viviane, Y1 - 2010/07/29/ PY - 2010/03/17/received PY - 2010/06/28/revised PY - 2010/07/01/accepted PY - 2010/7/30/entrez PY - 2010/7/30/pubmed PY - 2011/2/25/medline SP - 3179 EP - 85 JF - Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) JO - Environ. Pollut. VL - 158 IS - 10 N2 - In this study of wastewater treatment plants in three Canadian cities, selected illicit drugs, including cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy (i.e. MDMA) were detected in untreated wastewater. Cocaine was the most widely used illicit drug at a median level for the 3 cities of 15.7 doses per day per 1000 people. For the other drugs, the median doses per day per 1000 people were 1.8 for amphetamine, 4.5 for methamphetamine and 0.4 for ecstasy. Methamphetamine use was highest in the largest city and cocaine use was lowest in the smallest city. Removal of the illicit drugs by wastewater treatment was generally >50%, except in a WWTP that uses primary treatment. The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy. SN - 1873-6424 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20667638/Illicit_drugs_in_Canadian_municipal_wastewater_and_estimates_of_community_drug_use_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0269-7491(10)00281-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -