Gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophageal motility in morbidly obese patients submitted to laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding or laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty.Surg Endosc 2011; 25(3):795-803SE
Laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding (LASGB) and laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty (LVBG) are the most frequently performed restrictive operations for morbid obesity. The question of whether bariatric restrictive procedures increase or reduce gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains open. This study aimed to compare the long-term results of LASGB with those of LVBG in terms of postoperative GERD and esophageal motility function.
From February 1999 to December 2000, 175 patients underwent bariatric surgery. After 75 of these patients were excluded from the study, the remaining 100 patients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: LASGB or LVBG. The end points of the study were evaluation of clinical and instrumental GERD and esophageal function. The follow-up protocol included clinical assessment using the Gastroesophageal Reflux Health-Related Quality-of-Life (GERD-HRQOL) scale at 3, 12, and 96 months. Esophageal manometry, 24-h pH monitoring, and endoscopy were performed at 12 and 96 months.
At 12 months, GERD had developed in 13 (26%) LASGB and 11 (21.6%) LVBG patients. In the majority of cases, GERD resulted from pouch dilation or poor compliance and required either reoperation (ten after LASGB and three after LVBG) or endoscopic dilation of the neopylorus (four after LVBG). In all, 71 patients completed the 96-month follow-up protocol. The findings showed that three (11.5%) of 26 LASGB patients and four (9%) of 45 LVBG patients were receiving proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy for GERD. Postoperative lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and esophageal motility did not differ from preoperative data except for the presence of aperistaltic waves in one LASGB and two LVBG symptomatic GERD patients.
No significant association between gastric restrictive procedures and GERD or esophageal function was found during long-term follow-up assessment. The increased occurrence of GERD in the early follow-up period often is due to a technical defect or poor patient compliance.