FXYD-11 associates with Na+-K+-ATPase in the gill of Atlantic salmon: regulation and localization in relation to changed ion-regulatory status.Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Nov; 299(5):R1212-23.AJ
The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase is the primary electrogenic component driving transepithelial ion transport in the teleost gill; thus regulation of its level of activity is of critical importance for osmotic homeostasis. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of the gill-specific FXYD-11 protein, a putative regulatory subunit of the pump, in Atlantic salmon during seawater (SW) acclimation, smoltification, and treatment with cortisol, growth hormone, and prolactin. Dual-labeling immunohistochemistry showed that branchial FXYD-11 is localized in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase immunoreactive cells, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed a direct association between FXYD-11 and the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α-subunit. Transfer of freshwater (FW)-acclimated salmon to SW induced a parallel increase in total α-subunit and FXYD-11 protein expression. A similar concurrent increase was seen during smoltification in FW. In FW fish, cortisol induced an increase in both α-subunit and FXYD-11 abundance, and growth hormone further stimulated FXYD-11 levels. In SW fish, prolactin induced a decrease in FXYD-11 and α-subunit protein levels. In vitro cortisol (18 h, 10 μg/ml) stimulated FXYD-11, but not FXYD-9, mRNA levels in gills from FW and SW salmon. The data show that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase expressed in branchial mitochondrion-rich cells is accompanied by FXYD-11, and that regulation of the two proteins is highly coordinated. The demonstrated association of FXYD-11 and α-subunit strengthens our hypothesis that FXYD-11 has a role in modulating the pump's kinetic properties. The presence of putative phosphorylation sites on the intracellular domain of FXYD-11 suggests the possibility that this protein also may transmit external signals that regulate Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity.