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Electrochemical degradation of crystal violet with BDD electrodes: effect of electrochemical parameters and identification of organic by-products.
Chemosphere. 2010 Sep; 81(1):26-32.C

Abstract

This paper explores the applicability of electrochemical oxidation on a triphenylmethane dye compound model, hexamethylpararosaniline chloride (or crystal violet, CV), using BDD anodes. The effect of the important electrochemical parameters: current density (2.5-15 m A cm(-2)), dye concentration (33-600 mg L(-1)), sodium sulphate concentration (7.1-50.0 g L(-1)) and initial pH (3-11) on the efficiency of the electrochemical process was evaluated. The results indicated that while the current density was lower than the limiting current density, no side products (hydrogen peroxide, peroxodisulphate, ozone and chlorinated oxidizing compounds) were generated and the degradation, through OH radical attack, occurred with high efficiency. Analysis of intermediates using GC-MS investigation identified several products: N-methylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-methyl-N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-methyl-N-methylaniline, 4-dimethylaminophenol, 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-(N',N'-dimethylamino) diphenylmethane, 4-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-(N',N'-dimethylamino) benzophenone. The presence of these aromatic structures showed that the main CV degradation pathway is related to the reaction of CV with the OH radical. Under optimal conditions, practically 100% of the initial substrate and COD were eliminated in approximately 35 min of electrolysis; indicating that the early CV by-products were completely degraded by the electrochemical system.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Grupo de electroquímica, Instituto de química, Facultad de ciencias exactas y naturales, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín, Colombia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20709357

Citation

Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E., et al. "Electrochemical Degradation of Crystal Violet With BDD Electrodes: Effect of Electrochemical Parameters and Identification of Organic By-products." Chemosphere, vol. 81, no. 1, 2010, pp. 26-32.
Palma-Goyes RE, Guzmán-Duque FL, Peñuela G, et al. Electrochemical degradation of crystal violet with BDD electrodes: effect of electrochemical parameters and identification of organic by-products. Chemosphere. 2010;81(1):26-32.
Palma-Goyes, R. E., Guzmán-Duque, F. L., Peñuela, G., González, I., Nava, J. L., & Torres-Palma, R. A. (2010). Electrochemical degradation of crystal violet with BDD electrodes: effect of electrochemical parameters and identification of organic by-products. Chemosphere, 81(1), 26-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.07.020
Palma-Goyes RE, et al. Electrochemical Degradation of Crystal Violet With BDD Electrodes: Effect of Electrochemical Parameters and Identification of Organic By-products. Chemosphere. 2010;81(1):26-32. PubMed PMID: 20709357.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Electrochemical degradation of crystal violet with BDD electrodes: effect of electrochemical parameters and identification of organic by-products. AU - Palma-Goyes,Ricardo E, AU - Guzmán-Duque,Fernando L, AU - Peñuela,Gustavo, AU - González,Ignacio, AU - Nava,Jose L, AU - Torres-Palma,Ricardo A, Y1 - 2010/08/14/ PY - 2010/02/24/received PY - 2010/07/12/revised PY - 2010/07/14/accepted PY - 2010/8/17/entrez PY - 2010/8/17/pubmed PY - 2010/11/6/medline SP - 26 EP - 32 JF - Chemosphere JO - Chemosphere VL - 81 IS - 1 N2 - This paper explores the applicability of electrochemical oxidation on a triphenylmethane dye compound model, hexamethylpararosaniline chloride (or crystal violet, CV), using BDD anodes. The effect of the important electrochemical parameters: current density (2.5-15 m A cm(-2)), dye concentration (33-600 mg L(-1)), sodium sulphate concentration (7.1-50.0 g L(-1)) and initial pH (3-11) on the efficiency of the electrochemical process was evaluated. The results indicated that while the current density was lower than the limiting current density, no side products (hydrogen peroxide, peroxodisulphate, ozone and chlorinated oxidizing compounds) were generated and the degradation, through OH radical attack, occurred with high efficiency. Analysis of intermediates using GC-MS investigation identified several products: N-methylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-methyl-N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-methyl-N-methylaniline, 4-dimethylaminophenol, 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-(N',N'-dimethylamino) diphenylmethane, 4-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-(N',N'-dimethylamino) benzophenone. The presence of these aromatic structures showed that the main CV degradation pathway is related to the reaction of CV with the OH radical. Under optimal conditions, practically 100% of the initial substrate and COD were eliminated in approximately 35 min of electrolysis; indicating that the early CV by-products were completely degraded by the electrochemical system. SN - 1879-1298 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20709357/Electrochemical_degradation_of_crystal_violet_with_BDD_electrodes:_effect_of_electrochemical_parameters_and_identification_of_organic_by_products_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0045-6535(10)00801-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -