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A review of phytate, iron, zinc, and calcium concentrations in plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries and implications for bioavailability.
Food Nutr Bull. 2010 Jun; 31(2 Suppl):S134-46.FN

Abstract

Plant-based complementary foods often contain high levels of phytate, a potent inhibitor of iron, zinc, and calcium absorption. This review summarizes the concentrations of phytate (as hexa- and penta-inositol phosphate), iron, zinc, and calcium and the corresponding phytate:mineral molar ratios in 26 indigenous and 27 commercially processed plant-based complementary foods sold in low-income countries. Phytate concentrations were highest in complementary foods based on unrefined cereals and legumes (approximately 600 mg/100 g dry weight), followed by refined cereals (approximately 100 mg/100 g dry weight) and then starchy roots and tubers (< 20 mg/100 g dry weight); mineral concentrations followed the same trend. Sixty-two percent (16/26) of the indigenous and 37% (10/27) of the processed complementary foods had at least two phytate:mineral molar ratios (used to estimate relative mineral bioavailability) that exceeded suggested desirable levels for mineral absorption (i.e., phytate:iron < 1, phytate:zinc < 18, phytate:calcium < 0.17). Desirable molar ratios for phytate:iron, phytate:zinc, and phytate:calcium were achieved for 25%, 70%, and 57%, respectively, of the complementary foods presented, often through enrichment with animal-source foods and/or fortification with minerals. Dephytinization, either in the household or commercially, can potentially enhance mineral absorption in high-phytate complementary foods, although probably not enough to overcome the shortfalls in iron, zinc, and calcium content of plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries. Instead, to ensure the World Health Organization estimated needs for these minerals from plant-based complementary foods for breastfed infants are met, dephytinization must be combined with enrichment with animal-source foods and/or fortification with appropriate levels and forms of mineral fortificants.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Union Street, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9015, New Zealand. Rosalind.Gibson@Stonebow.Otago.AC.NZNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20715598

Citation

Gibson, Rosalind S., et al. "A Review of Phytate, Iron, Zinc, and Calcium Concentrations in Plant-based Complementary Foods Used in Low-income Countries and Implications for Bioavailability." Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 2 Suppl, 2010, pp. S134-46.
Gibson RS, Bailey KB, Gibbs M, et al. A review of phytate, iron, zinc, and calcium concentrations in plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries and implications for bioavailability. Food Nutr Bull. 2010;31(2 Suppl):S134-46.
Gibson, R. S., Bailey, K. B., Gibbs, M., & Ferguson, E. L. (2010). A review of phytate, iron, zinc, and calcium concentrations in plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries and implications for bioavailability. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 31(2 Suppl), S134-46.
Gibson RS, et al. A Review of Phytate, Iron, Zinc, and Calcium Concentrations in Plant-based Complementary Foods Used in Low-income Countries and Implications for Bioavailability. Food Nutr Bull. 2010;31(2 Suppl):S134-46. PubMed PMID: 20715598.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A review of phytate, iron, zinc, and calcium concentrations in plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries and implications for bioavailability. AU - Gibson,Rosalind S, AU - Bailey,Karl B, AU - Gibbs,Michelle, AU - Ferguson,Elaine L, PY - 2010/8/19/entrez PY - 2010/8/19/pubmed PY - 2010/9/23/medline SP - S134 EP - 46 JF - Food and nutrition bulletin JO - Food Nutr Bull VL - 31 IS - 2 Suppl N2 - Plant-based complementary foods often contain high levels of phytate, a potent inhibitor of iron, zinc, and calcium absorption. This review summarizes the concentrations of phytate (as hexa- and penta-inositol phosphate), iron, zinc, and calcium and the corresponding phytate:mineral molar ratios in 26 indigenous and 27 commercially processed plant-based complementary foods sold in low-income countries. Phytate concentrations were highest in complementary foods based on unrefined cereals and legumes (approximately 600 mg/100 g dry weight), followed by refined cereals (approximately 100 mg/100 g dry weight) and then starchy roots and tubers (< 20 mg/100 g dry weight); mineral concentrations followed the same trend. Sixty-two percent (16/26) of the indigenous and 37% (10/27) of the processed complementary foods had at least two phytate:mineral molar ratios (used to estimate relative mineral bioavailability) that exceeded suggested desirable levels for mineral absorption (i.e., phytate:iron < 1, phytate:zinc < 18, phytate:calcium < 0.17). Desirable molar ratios for phytate:iron, phytate:zinc, and phytate:calcium were achieved for 25%, 70%, and 57%, respectively, of the complementary foods presented, often through enrichment with animal-source foods and/or fortification with minerals. Dephytinization, either in the household or commercially, can potentially enhance mineral absorption in high-phytate complementary foods, although probably not enough to overcome the shortfalls in iron, zinc, and calcium content of plant-based complementary foods used in low-income countries. Instead, to ensure the World Health Organization estimated needs for these minerals from plant-based complementary foods for breastfed infants are met, dephytinization must be combined with enrichment with animal-source foods and/or fortification with appropriate levels and forms of mineral fortificants. SN - 0379-5721 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20715598/A_review_of_phytate_iron_zinc_and_calcium_concentrations_in_plant_based_complementary_foods_used_in_low_income_countries_and_implications_for_bioavailability_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/15648265100312S206?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -