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The role of sunlight exposure in determining the vitamin D status of the U.K. white adult population.
Br J Dermatol. 2010 Nov; 163(5):1050-5.BJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Vitamin D is necessary for bone health and is potentially protective against a range of malignancies. Opinions are divided on whether the proposed optimal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level (≥ 32 ng mL⁻¹) is an appropriate and feasible target at population level.

OBJECTIVES

We examined whether personal sunlight exposure levels can provide vitamin D sufficient (≥ 20 ng mL⁻¹) and optimal status in the U.K. public.

METHODS

This prospective cohort study measured circulating 25(OH)D monthly for 12 months in 125 white adults aged 20-60 years in Greater Manchester. Dietary vitamin D and personal ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure were assessed over 1-2 weeks in each season. The primary analysis determined the post-summer peak 25(OH)D required to maintain sufficiency in wintertime.

RESULTS

Dietary vitamin D remained low in all seasons (median 3·27 μg daily, range 2·76-4·15) while personal UVR exposure levels were high in spring and summer, low in autumn and negligible in winter. Mean 25(OH)D levels were highest in September [28·4 ng mL⁻¹; 28% optimal, zero deficient (<5 ng mL⁻¹)], and lowest in February (18·3 ng mL⁻¹; 7% optimal, 5% deficient). A February 25(OH)D level of 20 ng mL⁻¹ was achieved following a mean (95% confidence interval) late summer level of 30·4 (25·6-35·2) and 34·9 (27·9-41·9) ng mL⁻¹ in women and men, respectively, with 62% of variance explained by gender and September levels.

CONCLUSIONS

Late summer 25(OH)D levels approximating the optimal range are required to retain sufficiency throughout the U.K. winter. Currently the majority of the population fails to reach this post-summer level and becomes vitamin D insufficient during the winter.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Earth Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. ann.webb@manchester.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20716215

Citation

Webb, A R., et al. "The Role of Sunlight Exposure in Determining the Vitamin D Status of the U.K. White Adult Population." The British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 163, no. 5, 2010, pp. 1050-5.
Webb AR, Kift R, Durkin MT, et al. The role of sunlight exposure in determining the vitamin D status of the U.K. white adult population. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163(5):1050-5.
Webb, A. R., Kift, R., Durkin, M. T., O'Brien, S. J., Vail, A., Berry, J. L., & Rhodes, L. E. (2010). The role of sunlight exposure in determining the vitamin D status of the U.K. white adult population. The British Journal of Dermatology, 163(5), 1050-5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09975.x
Webb AR, et al. The Role of Sunlight Exposure in Determining the Vitamin D Status of the U.K. White Adult Population. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163(5):1050-5. PubMed PMID: 20716215.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The role of sunlight exposure in determining the vitamin D status of the U.K. white adult population. AU - Webb,A R, AU - Kift,R, AU - Durkin,M T, AU - O'Brien,S J, AU - Vail,A, AU - Berry,J L, AU - Rhodes,L E, Y1 - 2010/09/30/ PY - 2010/8/19/entrez PY - 2010/8/19/pubmed PY - 2011/1/11/medline SP - 1050 EP - 5 JF - The British journal of dermatology JO - Br J Dermatol VL - 163 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is necessary for bone health and is potentially protective against a range of malignancies. Opinions are divided on whether the proposed optimal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level (≥ 32 ng mL⁻¹) is an appropriate and feasible target at population level. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether personal sunlight exposure levels can provide vitamin D sufficient (≥ 20 ng mL⁻¹) and optimal status in the U.K. public. METHODS: This prospective cohort study measured circulating 25(OH)D monthly for 12 months in 125 white adults aged 20-60 years in Greater Manchester. Dietary vitamin D and personal ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure were assessed over 1-2 weeks in each season. The primary analysis determined the post-summer peak 25(OH)D required to maintain sufficiency in wintertime. RESULTS: Dietary vitamin D remained low in all seasons (median 3·27 μg daily, range 2·76-4·15) while personal UVR exposure levels were high in spring and summer, low in autumn and negligible in winter. Mean 25(OH)D levels were highest in September [28·4 ng mL⁻¹; 28% optimal, zero deficient (<5 ng mL⁻¹)], and lowest in February (18·3 ng mL⁻¹; 7% optimal, 5% deficient). A February 25(OH)D level of 20 ng mL⁻¹ was achieved following a mean (95% confidence interval) late summer level of 30·4 (25·6-35·2) and 34·9 (27·9-41·9) ng mL⁻¹ in women and men, respectively, with 62% of variance explained by gender and September levels. CONCLUSIONS: Late summer 25(OH)D levels approximating the optimal range are required to retain sufficiency throughout the U.K. winter. Currently the majority of the population fails to reach this post-summer level and becomes vitamin D insufficient during the winter. SN - 1365-2133 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20716215/The_role_of_sunlight_exposure_in_determining_the_vitamin_D_status_of_the_U_K__white_adult_population_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09975.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -