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Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.
J Food Sci. 2010 Aug 01; 75(6):S312-8.JF

Abstract

Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P < 0.05) than the wheat bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a longer shelf life. Further study is thus needed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Dept. of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart Univ., Chatuchak, Bangkok, Thailand.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20722954

Citation

Charoenthaikij, Phantipha, et al. "Germination Conditions Affect Selected Quality of Composite Wheat-germinated Brown Rice Flour and Bread Formulations." Journal of Food Science, vol. 75, no. 6, 2010, pp. S312-8.
Charoenthaikij P, Jangchud K, Jangchud A, et al. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations. J Food Sci. 2010;75(6):S312-8.
Charoenthaikij, P., Jangchud, K., Jangchud, A., Prinyawiwatkul, W., & Tungtrakul, P. (2010). Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations. Journal of Food Science, 75(6), S312-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01712.x
Charoenthaikij P, et al. Germination Conditions Affect Selected Quality of Composite Wheat-germinated Brown Rice Flour and Bread Formulations. J Food Sci. 2010 Aug 1;75(6):S312-8. PubMed PMID: 20722954.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations. AU - Charoenthaikij,Phantipha, AU - Jangchud,Kamolwan, AU - Jangchud,Anuvat, AU - Prinyawiwatkul,Witoon, AU - Tungtrakul,Patcharee, PY - 2010/8/21/entrez PY - 2010/8/21/pubmed PY - 2011/1/19/medline SP - S312 EP - 8 JF - Journal of food science JO - J Food Sci VL - 75 IS - 6 N2 - Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P < 0.05) than the wheat bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a longer shelf life. Further study is thus needed. SN - 1750-3841 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20722954/Germination_conditions_affect_selected_quality_of_composite_wheat_germinated_brown_rice_flour_and_bread_formulations_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -